Due by MAY 10 2021.
1. Toxic responses of the endocrine system: Changes in hormones induced by antipsychotic drugs
Reference: Popovic, V., Doknic, M., Maric, N., Pekic, S. et al. (2007) Changes in neuroendocrine and metabolic hormones induced by atypical antipsychotics in normal-weight patients with schizophrenia. Neuroendocrinology 85:249-256.
a. Q1. Rationale and design (10 points) –
i. What evidence is cited in the paper of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-induced weight gain?
ii. What questions did they try to answer with their study?
iii. Was the study cross-sectional or prospective?
iv. In the design, what type of patients did they recruit? Why? What time points did they select for the study?
b. Q2. Methods (10 points) –
i. How did the authors select patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls? What inclusion/exclusion criteria were used?
ii. How did the authors measure hormone levels for insulin, growth hormone, ghrelin, leptin and prolactin? Was it mass spectrometry, fluorometric assays, RIAs (what are they?) or something else?
c. Q3 – Patients compared to healthy controls (10 points) –
i. What were three major differences between patients with schizophrenia (SCH) and healthy controls (Table 1 and text)?
ii. What is the significance of hormone differences for insulin (peak), cortisol, and prolactin?
iii. What is HOMA-IR?
d. Q4. Effects of switch form First generation antipsychotic (FGA to SGA) (20 points)
i. What were the major effects observed at 1 and 3 months compared to baseline? See Table 2 and Figure 1. What happened to BMI?
ii. What happened to levels of leptin, cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone?
iii. How did the authors interpret the changes in growth hormone, leptin and cortisol?
iv. What is their main conclusion?
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