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What are some tactical questions you’d ideally like to be able to answer in this area that would help your organization improve?

Culminating Project for Data Driven Decision Making I

Getting Started with Data Driven Decision Making: A Workbook

Directions 1

Introduction 2

Worksheets

1. D e f i ne Y ou r A c t i on Q ue s t i on 3

2. Wh a t Does Th i s Question M ean T o Y ou r O r ga n iz a ti on? 5

3. H o w Wil l Y o u K n o w W h a t t h e Right Metr i c s Ar e? 6

4. What Could You Measure? 7

5. Wha t D a ta Do Y o u H a v e ? 9

6. F in d The Metr i c s That M a k e S e n s e Fo r Y ou 10

7. The M et r ic C r ea t ion P r ocess 11

8. D e f i ne a P ro c e s s f o r Us i ng Th e m to M a k e D e c i s i ons 12

9. Create an Implementation Action Plan 13

10. Action Plan 15

Could you use more help thinking through how to use data to help your organization make decisions? If so, you’re not alone. Recent reports on how organizations are using data has shown that although most are relying heavily on data, a number are doing very little to measure their work.

Measuring may not be as difficult as you suspect. Experts agree that simply starting to track a few strategic metrics is a huge step toward a more data based decision making based culture. Once an organization has data that they can use to make decisions, they will often start to want more. A few, straightforward metrics can start the snowball rolling.

Getting started with data driven decision making isn’t a trivial process, however. What metrics will be useful and actionable—but, not require a ton of time to collect and understand? How do you define and communicate data in order for your organization to make decisions? This workbook will help you to start applying what you have learned in this course, and will also help you to start answering critical questions.

Starting with a question of interest that you want to explore, either in your current organization or a future organization that you want to work with, this workbook will guide you through the process of using DDDM. You will start with the first worksheet and proceed in order through the entire workbook. The workbook will walk you through the process of choosing and refining initial metrics, defining how you will collect the data, and explaining how to disseminate that data for decision making.

Don’t feel overwhelmed by data. The journey to data-based decision making, like any, begins with the first step. In this case, you will begin with the first worksheet. Once you start defining the metrics that will help your organization, you may find that it’s easier than you thought!

After all of the workbook pages are complete, you submit the completed version into the appropriate Dropbox.

Introduction

Create an introduction section where you should fully describe the organization, your role, and the overall area of concern (Minimum requirement: 250 words). 

The organization that I work in is a food restaurant. The work in the restaurant includes preparation of food, preparation of the table, planning of events, cleaning and reception among others. Therefore, the services require a lot of teamwork and hospitality. The feedback from the customer on the quality of services as well as food is paramount for the restaurant to keep on growing and making reasonable profits. Therefore to gain competitive advantage over the other restaurants, we need to update as well as give the best services ever than the others. The restaurant has employees working in different roles. For example the back of house employees deals with preparation and presentation of food. They are also involved in the washing of dishes. The fronts of house employees interact with and welcome customers. Despite the fact that food restaurants are the same, every business is unique. In the restaurant a strong service ethics is essential for every person in the team. In some cases managers are required to calm irritated customers by explaining strategies or solving problems. Line cooks and dishwashers have also essential roles that are invisible in customer health and happiness and therefore they are required to take their work with the seriousness that is needed. I am a manager in the restaurant and therefore I have the responsibility of overseeing the smooth operation and profitability of the restaurant. I am also charged with the responsibility of managing the employees in the restaurant. I have to ensure that the employees carry out their duties with a lot of integrity and diligence.

1

This workbook is designed to help you hone some of the metrics that will be practical and meaningful for you in a particular area. To focus your efforts more productively, start by identifying the general area you want to explore in more detail. Choose an item from the box to the right that resonates with you, or define your own based on a topic your organization is most interested in.

What’s an area you want to explore?

Since the productivity of our restaurant depends on the input of employees, I will focus on staff development

Now, define a particular action question within that area. It’s not going to be easy—your action question must be specific enough to be measurable and to help you decide how to move forward, but also important enough to really matter to your organization. Let’s start by brainstorming.

What are some tactical questions you’d ideally like to be able to answer in this area that would help your organization improve?

1. Do our employees have the right training to handle their various roles?

2. Do we require a training program for our employees?

3. Can we increase productivity if we train our employees?

4. Will it be beneficial if we coach our employees?

5. Do we have the right employees for the various roles at this time?

POSSIBLE ORGANIZATIONAL AREAS FOR EXPLORATION

· Recruiting clients

· Efficiency of a process

· Projecting future income

· A specific program

· Annual campaign

· Facebook outreach

· Email list-building

· Staff development

· Staff recruitment

… Or choose your own

WHAT MAKES A GOOD QUESTION?

Stumped as to the type of question we’re looking for? Try to think of something that will help your organic- nation improves and that you can have an impact on—but that can also be tested and measured. For example, “How can we improve fundraising?” is too broad—it’s not easy to pin down what you would specifically do to affect or measure it. “What’s our email open rate?” is too narrow and it’s not clear how it relates to organization goals. Look for a question that’s both important and detailed enough to be testable, such as “Is our blog worth the time we spend on it?” or “How can we improve program attendance?”

Let’s drill a little more deeply into those questions. Refer to the questions you defined above by number.

QUESTION
Will the answer to this question help you improve as an organization?
Will your actions as an organization affect the answer to this question?
Can numbers help you answer the question? (If yes, which KPI is useful?
Is the question testable? Can you create a hypothesis about a potential answer, and then test it?

Yes/ No
Why or why not?
Yes/ No
Why or why not?
Yes/ No
Why or why not?
Yes/ No
Why or why not?

1.
yes
Employees with the right training will carry out their roles diligently
yes
If we acquire employees with the right training ,the organization will grow
no
Because the number of employees is irrelevant as long as they know their roles or they have the right training
yes
A hypothesis can be created and tested where we can test if employees with the right training lead to higher productivity.

2.
yes
Through the question ,we can identify if our employees need training or if they are the reason for low productivity
yes
Are we in a position of supporting employee development program
yes
What will be the cost
yes
We can be able to form an hypothesis and test if we need training programs

3.
yes
It will help us know if we can improve productivity through training of employees
yes
Help us know if training employees will be useful
yes
It will help us know how who need the training
yes
An hypothesis can be performed and tested to ascertain if training employees increase productivity

4.
yes
The significance of coaching can be determined
yes
Will help in determining if coaching is relevant
yes
Will help in assessing the if it is worth
yes
An hypothesis can be formed and tested to establish coaching is useful

5.
yes
It will help in assessing their performance
yes
Will be able to take the right action in terms of ensuring the right employees are engaged
yes
It is useful in knowing if the number is the correct one
yes
An hypothesis can be formulated and tested.

Think through the answers you gave above. For one or more of the questions, were you able to answer “Yes” in all of the boxes? If so, pick one of those questions to explore with this workbook, or combine multiple questions together to define one overarching question. (Note that if you combine multiple questions into one, you need to plug it into the table above to make sure it fits all the criteria.) You must end up with an action question that will be the framework for the rest of this workbook.

Write your single action question here:

Do we have the right employees for the various roles at this time

Did you answer “No” to at least one of the criteria for all of your questions in the table above? If so, those questions will be difficult to answer using metrics. Brainstorm some other questions that are important but also measurable to get to a place where you can define an action question that will be the framework for the remainder of this workbook.

2. What Does This Question Mean To Your Organization?

What would different people in your organization want to know about this question in terms of how it affects their own jobs? How much does each person care about the information at all? It’s likely that there are a number of different perspectives about it. Not sure what people would like to know? Ask them…

In the mock organization chart below, do two things:

· In the small box in the upper left, define how important the information would be to each type of role in your organization (High, Medium, or Low).

· In the larger space in each box, list some of the key pieces of information that a person in that role in particular might be interested in seeing. Don’t worry about what’s possible or practical just yet, simply brainstorm what they’d ideally like to see.

FOR EXAMPLE

high
Dish washers and cleaners

High
Owner

· Is it costing them to train· Will they get a salary increase or promotion after the exercise

· Summary of attendance numbers· High level of demographics

high
manager

high
chef

· The training programs relevant for the employees· The number of employees needing the training

· are the programs relevant· How useful will they be in his or her current position? will it cost

high
cooks

high
waiters

· Is it costing them to train· .will they be promoted or have salary increase after training

· Will the training improve their customer interactions· Is it costing them to train

Now that you’ve thought that through, do a reality check: Do other people care about this question too? If you’re the only person who really cares, is it an important question for your organization?

Soon we’ll define metrics to help you answer your question. Metrics provide a numerical yardstick to help you determine whether your efforts are making a difference—and if so, in what direction. Before we go too far down that road, think through how you’ll judge whether the metrics will actually help you define what you really want to know.

There are different ways to think about this. Answer the questions below – this step will help you make the most sense of your overall action question. Write a brief description of what success will look like in this process.

1. What specific decisions do you want to be able to make based on the answer to your question?

Whether it is appropriate to train the employees?

Which is the best training program?

Will the training increase productivity??

Which roles require training?

Will it be expensive for the company?

Will the employees add value to the company after training?

2. What things will you need to understand in order to feel you have real knowledge to address your question?

Relevant programs for training the employees

The cost involved in the training

Which employee requires the training?

Relationship between training and increased productivity.

3. Will any answer to your question feel like success, or will you need to achieve a specific result to feel successful?

I will require to attain a specific success in order to feel successful

`

There are a lot of different things you could measure for any given thing. Brainstorm the different actions you could take that might have an impact on your overall question and the metrics you could use to measure it. A metric is a number—often a KPI, a count, or a percentage—that measures your success in an area.

1. WHAT ACTIONS COULD YOU TAKE THAT WOULD HAVE AN IMPACT ON YOUR ACTION QUESTION?

Action
What metric could you use to measure this?At least one KPI should be used.
Who has the ability to affect the measurement? Is it something you could change through your actions?
If you were to measure this, how many people in your organization would care?
To what extent would seeing a measurement for this help you improve your organization?
To what extent would your org’s actions quickly result in a change to the measurement?
Now sum up the last three columns to create a Usefulness Score

For instance,# participants,% satisfaction,# Units provided.
Who?And, Answer Yes or No about self.
1= Almost No One5= The Whole Organization
1= Only slightly5= Completely transformed
1= Very hard to see change5= Actions visibly change metric almost immediately

Employee coaching
Employee perspective
Yes is something I can change
The whole organization
Only slightly
Visible almost immediately
11

Training programs
Employee perspective
Yes .I can change it through my actions
The whole organization
Completely transformed
Visible almost immediately
15

2. WHAT ACTIONS COULD YOUR CONSTITUENTS TAKE THAT WOULD AFFECT YOUR ACTION QUESTION?

Action
What metric could you use to measure this?At least one KPI should be used.
Who has the ability to affect the measurement? Is it something you could change through your actions?
If you were to measure this, how many people in your organization would care?
To what extent would seeing a measurement for this help you improve your organization?
To what extent would your org’s actions quickly result in a change to the measurement?
Now sum up the last three columns to create a Usefulness Score

For instance,# participants,% satisfaction,# Units provided.
Who?And, Answer Yes or No about self.
1= Almost No One5= The Whole Organization
1= Only slightly5= Completely transformed
1= Very hard to see change5= Actions visibly change metric almost immediately

Estimating the cost of training
Financial perspective
Yes they can change
The whole organization
Only slightly
Almost immediately
11

Identifying employees who require training
Marketing perspective
Yes they can change
The whole organization
Only slightly
Almost immediately
11

Measuring the value from training
Customer perspective
Yes they can change
The whole organization
Completely transformed
Almost immediately
15

3. WHAT ACTIONS COULD OTHER PEOPLE TAKE THAT WOULD AFFECT YOUR ACTION QUESTION EVEN IF THEY AREN’T IMMEDIATELY ASSOCIATED WITH YOUR ORGANIZATION?

Action
What metric could you use to measure this?At least one KPI should be used.
Who has the ability to affect the measurement? Is it something you could change through your actions?
If you were to measure this, how many people in your organization would care?
To what extent would seeing a measurement for this help you improve your organization?
To what extent would your org’s actions quickly result in a change to the measurement?
Now sum up the last three columns to create a Usefulness Score

For instance,# participants,% satisfaction,# Units provided.
Who?And, Answer Yes or No about self.
1= Almost No One5= The Whole Organization
1= Only slightly5= Completely transformed
1= Very hard to see change5= Actions visibly change metric almost immediately

Recognizing changes
Data management
Yes actions can change
The whole organization
Completely transformed
Very hard to see change
11

Accepting the training
Data acquisition
Yes they can change
The whole organization
Only slightly visible
Almost immediately
11

Appreciating the coaching
Employee perspective
Yes the actions can change
The whole organization
Completely transformed
Almost immediately
15

Based on the rows where you have indicated the highest total score in the right hand column (and your gut reaction to how well the total score reflects reality), choose six that seem promising for exploring your action question . For each, copy the Metric, from the second column, and the overall sum for that row into the table below.

Metric – Describe the metric fully
Sum (Usefulness Score)

Customer perspective ;it will evaluate the performance of the organization through the eyes of the customer
15

Employee perspectives; will ensure success of the business since their needs will be satisfied
15

Financial perspective important in evaluating whether the cost is attainable
15

Marketing perspective is important in showing the growth of the business
11

Data acquisition ‘useful evaluating the impact of the coaching programs
11

Data management useful in ensuring the success of the business
11

The next step in this process is to identify the data sources for the metrics you’ve said you’d like to track (if you can’t collect the data, then you won’t be able to track that metric). For each of the six metrics you defined on the previous page, think through the data you have (or can collect) that relates.

Metric (from previous worksheet).
What related data is currently manually entered into a system?
What related data is automatically tracked by a system?
What additional relevant data about actions, perceptions, or processes could be collected that is not currently collected?
What related data could you get from other organizations or public sources? Where could you get it?
Looking across what you’ve written for each column, score the overall ease of collecting data to get this metric.1 = Would require vast new investment10 = Already have it

Financial perspective
Number of workersTheir qualifications
The performance appraisals both for the employee and the organization
Relevant training and coaching programsThe cost of getting such services
How useful the programs are in their organizationWhether they coach employees in the first place
10

Marketing perspective
How much is collected a day from the services offeredThe amount of profit daily or loses incurred
The ratings from customers on the services they get
The perceptions or views of the customers on the services they receive. Their likes and dislikes
What services they offer ,what are the quality of their services and if they are ahead of us
10

Customer perspective
The number of workersProductivity per dayDaily expenses
Value added
How much is needed to fill the gaps
What more they have that we do have
1

Employee perspective
Employee’s performance as well as profits and loss
Value added
If they appreciate the organization
How they tell their employees are happy
10

Data acquisition
Feedback from customers
Ratings from customers
Data that has not been collected
More source they have and we don’t
1

Data management
Ratings received from customers
Feedback from customers
Methods of data management
Data management approaches
1

You’ve rated the usefulness of each metric (in Worksheet Four), and the difficulty of getting the data (in Worksheet Five). Now plot each metric using those two scores.

X

X15

14

X X

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

EASE OF COLLECTING DATA

It likely makes sense to start with the metric that is closest to the top and right of the plot. Choose one metric (or a small number) that will provide you the biggest bang for the buck. As you grow comfortable with that metric, you may want to add more that also seem useful into the mix.

What Metric will you start with?

Employee perspective

HOW TO PLOT YOUR METRICS

If you’re metric had a sum of 6

According to worksheet four, and a score of 5 according to worksheet five, then you’d plot that metric like this example.

7

6

5 6

Even if the data is readily at hand, the metrics won’t create and distribute themselves. It’s important to map out the flow of how the data will become an accurate metric—both to make sure you’ve thought it through, and to acknowledge the actual work that will be required to ensure success. Think through this process for your metric.

Data Sources? Company database External sources like big data and cloud computing The internet and other social platforms How is this data entered into a system? Manually or automatically What’s the incentive to ensure it’s entered ? Talking to employees on the importance of coaching and training programs Where is it stored ? Company data base Who creates the metric from the data ? The manager and the information technology department Who distributes it ? The manager and the stakeholders Who’s in charge of this whole process? The manager is in charge of the whole process How will you spot check to ensure the metric accurately reflects reality? I will spot check by Confirming the qualifications of the employees using their original documents .Benchmarking with other companies and though the use of Big Data

You not only need a process for creating your metrics—you need a process to actually use them. This is one of the most critical steps.

How frequently will you create the metrics? On a daily basis Who will they be distributed to? Top management In what meetings will they be used? Stakeholders meeting Meetings discussing performance improvements How frequently will you plan to adjust your actions based on what the metrics say? On a monthly basis or anytime need arises . What decisions shouldn’t be made without them? decisions on training and coaching programs for employees How frequently will you check in on whether the metrics themselves are an effective way to measure? And what you’re trying to measure? On a daily basis will try to evaluate the output as a result of the metric implemented. Have they brought change in terms of quality of services offered? Do we have more customers than before? Are we making a lot of profit than before?

Congratulations! You’ve defined a strategy to create and use metrics to measure a core question for your organization. But a strategy is one thing, and implementation is

Another. To speed you on your way to a successful rollout of your metrics, think through the implementation steps.

People You’ll Need to Get Onboard

Who are the core individuals who will need to buy in? Think through both the official people who need to be onboard and the other people who might become barriers if they’re not included. List them below. Then think through the right way to include them in the process: Email? Presentation? Discussion?

Person or Group
Method of Including Them

Stakeholders
presentation

directors
presentation

employees
discussion

customers
Feedback thorough ratings

Other companies
Through benchmarking

Expertise in data management
Offering them contracts

Processes You’ll Need to Define

On the previous worksheets, did you define processes for collecting, analyzing, or distributing metrics that need to be more fully fleshed out? If so, define what they are and how you’ll put more detail around them. Maybe another meeting? More documentation? A larger project?

Process
Method of Defining

Satisfaction requires collection of data through surveys and questionnaires
Meetings on the results or data collected

Collecting views of customers
Ratings from customers as well as the feedback given by them

Employee development
Getting feedback from them on how they feel while working with us

Marketing information or ratings
Can be derived from the amount of sales made

Financial progress determination
It will be evaluated form the sales made. Whether we are making profits or losses or profits as well as the expenses

Data management
Data acquired from different sources which will be analysed to derive useful insights.

Things You’ll Need to Allocate a Budget For

Have you defined a process that involves things that you don’t already have? For example, a survey tool, a bar code scanner, a new staff member, or maybe a consultant to think it all through? Itemize anything new that needs to be paid for, and what process you’ll need to go through to select and purchase the product.

Item to Buy
Purchase Process

Budget for coaching and training programs
To be done by the manager

Money for the budget
To be provided and approved by top management

Employee expenses on training and coaching
To be given by the top management

Expenses for hiring expertise
Be given by the management

Expenses for collecting customer views
By management

Expenses for acquiring equipments for data management
By management

Other Things You’ll Need to Make Happen

Are there other things that need to happen before you can move forward? List them here along with useful details.

Additional Step
Details

Approval or acceptance of the program by the employees
Employees need to accept the training and approve of it.

Approval of hiring expertise
Management need to approve of it

Benchmarking in other similar companies
Management approval

Choosing appropriate coaching programs
Employees to assist in that

Acquiring equipments for data management
Management to approve

Data acquisition sources
All the stakeholders to approve

Those are your next steps–but they’re probably not in the right order.

Go back through that list and decide what you should do first: Talk to some people? Define a process? Put a number 1 next to that step. Determine what’s next and put a number 2 next to it. Continue through the whole list until you have an entire action plan in approximately the correct order.

And then… go start with the first item on your list

Action Plan

Please offer a clear and concise implementation plan (Minimum requirement: 350 words)The action plan will include first identifying the gaps in the performance of the restaurant. It is appropriate to identify if the performance is improving or areas that need to be improved. The training or experiences of the employees need to be evaluated to know where gaps are in terms of training. Lack of the necessary skills by the employee should be considered and related to performance to evaluate of there is connection between performance and training programs. Benchmarking should be done in other performing restaurants to see the training g programs offered to their staff and how they do it. Data should be gathered from social media platforms, and from big data to ascertain if the move of coaching and implementing training programs will be efficient. Employees should be sensitized on the same to make them appreciate the importance of the program. The same should be discussed with the top management to get their views as well as make hem support the program. The value that will be generated for the programs and coaching should be weighed out to determine if it is worth it. The total cost and expenses for the whole exercise should be calculated to ascertain the worthiness of the exercise. It should be clear how the training will be useful in improving performance as well as the personal development of a person. There should be a meeting with the directors and the stakeholders to discuss the whole issue and see if t is attainable. Employees should also be given time to ascertain if tt is important. Qualifications of employees should be looked at as well as their performance to identify those who require the programs and the suitability of the programs depending on the needs or gaps identified. The best and relevant training programs should be identified .Then finally the training programs should be undertaken as agreed and within the proposed budget. Regular checks should be don to evaluate the effectiveness of the training and the coaching whether they were of value. More gaps should be identified continuously and appropriate training be given. The exercise will also be useful in replacing staff or when acquiring new staff to ensure that right employees are the ones carrying out te various roles every time.
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