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VISA 1301 Faculty of Arts Study Guide VISA 1301 Material and Form Study Guide VISA 1301 Material and Form The course materials in VISA 1301 ha

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VISA 1301

Faculty of Arts

Study Guide

VISA 1301
Material and Form

Study Guide

VISA 1301
Material and Form

The course materials in VISA 1301 have been provided to you for your private study
and educational use only. TRU grants you a limited and revocable license to access
and make personal use (including permission to print one copy) of the Study
Guide for the purposes of course related study. These materials may not be further

Copyright and Credits
Copyright 2015 (Revised), 2014 (revised); 2011 Thompson Rivers University. All
rights reserved.

The content of this course material is the property of Thompson Rivers University (TRU)
and is protected by copyright law worldwide. This material may be used by students
enrolled at TRU for personal study purposes only. No part of this work may be forwarded
or reproduced in any form by any means without permission in writing from the
Intellectual Property Office, Thompson Rivers University; [emailprotected]

TRU seeks to ensure that any course content that is owned by others has been
appropriately cleared for use in this course. Anyone wishing to make additional use
of such third party material must obtain clearance from the copyright holder.

The 1988 edition of this course was developed in cooperation between Emily Carr College
of Art and Design, the Open Learning Agency, and the Provincial Education Media Centre,
with the assistance of the Ministry of Advanced Education and Job Training.

Course Development Team, 2nd edition, revised 2014:

Course Reviser:

Program Coordinator, Faculty of Arts:

Associate Dean, Arts:

Course Editor:


James Lindfield, MA

Michael Looney, MSc

Ronald McGivern, MA

Dawn-Louise McLeod, MEd

Jon Fulton, BFA; Rob Swanson

Course Development Team, 1st edition

Writer and Presenter:

Program Co-ordinator, Humanities (OU):

Program Director, Telecourses (ECCAD):

Television Director:

Course Designer:

Tom Hudson, PhD

Sharon Meen, PhD

Elisa McLaren

Bernard Motut

Norah Kembar

Course Reference: VISA 1301 SW1

Thompson Rivers University
805 TRU Way
Kamloops, BC, Canada
V2C 0C8

Table of Contents
Unit 1: Wood …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. U1-1

Unit 2: Metal …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. U2-1

Unit 3: Plastic ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. U3-1

Unit 4: Paper ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… U4-1

Unit 5: Fibres …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. U5-1

Unit 6: Particles …………………………………………………………………………………………………. U6-1

Unit 7: Stone ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… U7-1

Unit 8: Earth ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… U8-1

Unit 9: Liquid ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. U9-1

Unit 10: Space …………………………………………………………………………………………………. U10-1

Faculty of Arts

Unit 1:

VISA 1301
Material and Form

VISA 1301: Material and Form U1-1

Unit 1: Wood

Note: DVD 1 includes two video programs: Introduction and Wood.

Wood begins its existence as a living, breathing organism, and the role of trees
involves all other breathing things, including ourselves. We have become
increasingly aware of our dependence on trees and their part in the ecological
balance. The mighty forests that once covered about sixty per cent of the earths land
mass have now shrunk to six per cent and are still decreasing. So it may seem rather
ironic that to suggest exploring the qualities of wood and find further uses for it.
However, the intimacy of working with wood may induce a greater respect for it;
creative activity generally uses relatively little wood, and the results demonstrate the
admirable qualities of the material.

Note: In this course, terms that are in bold font type are in your Glossary;
other terms may be in italics. (Bold font is also used for emphasis.) Remember
to refer to the Glossary whenever you encounter new terms in this course.

Sources, Classification, and Characteristics of Wood

Sources of Wood
Trees are evergreen and deciduous, broad-leafed and coniferous, and their trunks are the
source of wood. This organic material consists of bundles of fibres, running in the direction
of growth of the original tree. Trees are the tallest of all plants; they are also the most
durable of living structures. The oldest living thing on earth is possibly a bristlecone pine
about 4,600 years old, in Californias White Mountains. The largest living thing is a giant
California sequoia, a redwood close to eighty-five metres high and over thirty-one metres in
diameter at the basethough a cypress in Oaxaca, Mexico, is twelve metres in diameter at
one metre above ground level. Probably even more amazing, a single banyan tree sending
out shoots can create a mini-forest covering close to three hectares.

The durability of trees is part of their protective survival. They can withstand most
weather conditions, reaching up to acquire a substantial share of the changing energy of
sun and rain. But as with all organic things, their sequence of growth leads to changes of
form, to deteriorations and decaythe vulnerable cycle of all living things. People are
often horrified by decay, but decay is as necessary and as functional as growth.

TRU Open Learning

U1-2 Unit 1: Wood

The growth pattern of a tree determines the nature and structure of the woodits
texture, density, and structural direction. See illustration 1 at the end of this unit to
view a detailed cross-section of the five essential parts of the tree trunk, which are
listed next:

1. The protective outer bark

2. The inner bark, or phloem, which provides an easy passage for the sap to
feed new wood cells

3. The cambiumonly one cell thick, this layer powers the growth of the tree,
continuously producing wood and phloem cells

4. The sapwoodor soft, active layerwhere the sap flows into the annual
growth ring; in a period of fast growth, the annuals are wider apart; slow
growth brings the rings closer together

5. The heartwood, which is the dead centre of the trunk; it gives the tree
strength and rigidity

A felled tree of wet, green wood dries out and shrinks, so it has to be seasonedthat
is, subjected to controlled drying. Once a slow process, seasoning can now be
carried out in days or even hours by accelerated drying in kilns. However, even
seasoned timber is liable to warpby twisting, cupping, or bowing.

Classification of Wood
Wood is classified as softwood or hardwood, depending on the tree source rather
than on its actual hardness, as might be expected. Some softwoods are harder than
some hardwoods!

Broad-leaf trees such as oak, walnut, birch, maple, cherry, and mahogany
produce hardwoods.

Coniferous trees such as pine, cedar, fir, and redwood produce softwoods,
regardless of their actual hardness.

Wood of all types is used by carpenters, joiners, cabinet makers, and craftspeople,
such as instrument and tool makers. It is also used extensively for construction by
builders, engineers, and architects. Designers use it, often in relation to other
materials, while artists exploit it for their own individual and aesthetic purposes.

Characteristics of Wood
Because of its structure, wood splits easily in the direction of growth. According to
how timber is cut, the fibrous nature of wood provides a varied organic pattern,
known as the grain. The decorative quality of the grain has always been exploited by
craftspeople and artists. Grain varies naturally, according to the type of tree and its

TRU Open Learning

VISA 1301: Material and Form U1-3

pattern of growth. Straight-growing pines and similar trees have a relatively simple
grain pattern. The grains of walnut, sycamore, or pear are more complex and have a
more attractive grain. The decorative appeal of grain is essentially the appeal of
abstract pattern. The grain of the wood may also show the dark forms of knots, the
cut-through remains of earlier branch growth.

Trees are also subject to checks, or cracks and splits, which vary in form and
position. Star-shaped checks may appear in the central heartwood, long lateral
checks can occur radially around the trunk, and other checks may follow part of the
internal line of an annual ring.

Although wood is generally less durable than inorganic materials, under certain conditions,
it can last for a long time. It has less load-bearing strength than steel, but, weight for weight,
it is structurally strong. Apart from its grain, fibrous structure, and other observable
objective qualities, it can also possess a softness of texture and be warm to the touch. It can
be rigid or flexible, hard or soft. In colour and form, it varies from dense, black ebony to
hollow, pale bamboo; in weight, from heavy teak to light balsa wood.

Working with Wood
There are many ways of cutting timber, demonstrated by computer imagery in the
video Wood. Illustration 2 at the end of this course unit also shows examples of
timber-cutting methods. Some of these methods result in higher-quality wood
products than others.

Through and through cutting is most common and cheapest.

Plain sawn timber is a little more expensive.

Flat sawn boards, cut at a tangent to the growth layers, are liable to warp.

Radially cut board remains flat.

Quarter sawn timber has to be turned many times to achieve warp-free
boards; quarter sawing can be achieved by cutting radially around the log,
toward the centre.

Round the log sawing provides a varied range of sections, suitable for different

Wood is now rarely worked from the block, except for turning and carving. The
trunk of a tree, however, can be cut by a process that uncoils thin, wide sheets
from the bark to the central pith. These are superimposed one on another,
alternating the direction of the grain, then glued under pressure to make plywood.
Both strong and light, plywood provides large, even surfaces that are easily sawn.
Besides plywood, various compressed boards are made from strips, chips, or
particles of wood. All are used in construction.

TRU Open Learning

U1-4 Unit 1: Wood

Thin sheets of expensive, richly grained, and beautifully coloured hardwoods are cut
by rotating the wood against a stationary knife after steaming. Damp steam heat is
used to make wood pliable, so that it can be formed into sheets and used in
bentwood furniture. These sheets are called veneers, which are usually laminated to
the surfaces of inferior woods.

In joinery and cabinet making, there are two basic requirements:

To make skeleton frames, at right angles, for door frames and other
supporting framework; flat areas of wood are used for covering and surfaces

To construct frames of flat sections of wood joined vertically and at right
angles to make container forms, such as boxes, drawers, desks, and cabinets

To really appreciate wood, to understand and exploit it, you must learn its
characteristics by actual physical experience. You need to be open to possibilities,
responding in your own way to its characteristics by variously cutting, splitting,
bending, gluing, tying, binding, and so on. Remember that technology is really
about bringing things in relationship to each other in particular ways. Artists and
designers have always faced the problem of selecting the best material to realize
their concept or idea from the large variety of materials available.

The design, construction, and form of the materials and objects produced from trees
didnt just happenthey were evolved through trial and error. They also represent
best-possible solutions of their time. However, that doesnt mean that we cannot
find new solutions in our own time and from our own experience. Each new
generation has to rediscover everything and tends to remake everything. We make,
build, and construct from our current points of view, according to our needs.

Assignment 1: Wood


In Assignment 1, you are required to complete one of three sections.

Detailed instructions on how to work through the assignment are available under
the heading Instructions. Before you begin work on your assignment, read
carefully through all of the following instructions for this assignment.

TRU Open Learning

VISA 1301: Material and Form U1-5

Complete one of the following three sections:

Section 1: Tying, Binding, and Constructing Forms


Section 2: Joining Forms (choose either Project 2-A, 2-B, or 2-C)


Section 3: Transforming Wooden Furniture

Notebook and Documentation
Before you start work, make sure that you have read How to Work on Your
Assignments and Assignment Documentation Requirements in the Course
Manual. For this and every assignment in this course, you must submit
documentation of your work.

While working on your assignment, use photographs to document your working
processes. See Course Manual Techniques for taking Stronger Photographs.
Ensure that you watch Tom Hudsons suggestions regarding documentation toward
the end of the video Introduction. Your notebook pages can include brief written
notes, drawings, and diagrams. You can also use video. We recommend that you
wait to send in your work until after you have completed both Unit 1 and Unit 2. If
you are following the suggested schedule you should have finished Unit 1 by the
end of Week One.

Improvisation and Research
When you watch the videos, youll notice that the on-camera students use
improvisation to achieve immediate responses to a given material. In the case of
wood, we use a length of rigid dowel as this material.

In this instance, its more important for you to experiment with different ways you
can work with wood. For example, you can explore the materials by trying out
primary processes, such as binding, tying, weaving, plaiting, joining, sawing,
cutting, splicing, and so on.

Wood is available in so many forms that it is sensible to give some thought to the
range available before you start your assignment. You may have to collect materials
sometime beforehand from the forest, building sites, lumber yards, or hardware
stores. Make your initial choice of the material you will use for your first
experiments rapidly. If you choose Section 2 of this assignment, it will be possible
for you to change to other material later.

TRU Open Learning

U1-6 Unit 1: Wood

Section 1: Tying, Binding, and Constructing Forms
The purpose of this section is to introduce you to ways of creating relationships and
forms in wood by using low-technology methods.

1. Start by gathering wood in natural forms, such as twigs and branches found
on the forest floor. You will be able to select among forms that vary widely in
their scale, flexibility or rigidity, and weight, depending on the type of tree
and the age of the material; that is, how much it has dried out.

2. Break, cut, or saw the pieces of twig or branch and experiment with basic
joining methods of tying and binding. You can use string, hemp, cord, or any
other linear material. Dont overlook wire as a fastener. Thin black iron wire,
such as baling wire, is soft and can be manipulated easily: one wrap around
and a twist of the pliers should hold two pieces together.

3. When choosing your fastening material, consider how well it relates to the
wooden pieces. Do they look right together? Why or why not?

4. Tie first for functional efficiency using a minimum amount of material, then
give some thought to the aesthetics of the problem. Look for ways of tying
and binding that create solutions that look better to you.

5. Start thinking about relationships, both the ones created by bringing wood
and binding materials together and relationships of form. Try making a series
of linear, geometric, spatial forms, or irregular constructions. If you have a
supply of flexible material, it will be easy to make curved, arched, circular,
and spherical forms.

6. Look at the forms you have created from different viewpoints, or turn them in your
hand. Are you working three dimensionally? Can you add other forms or parts of
forms to improve your least preferred views of your constructions?

7. Still working on a relatively small scale, begin developing more variations,
freely and intuitively.

8. Then, review all you have done by setting out the forms in the order in which
you made them. Try to see where you did things in a logical way, or where
there is a growth or change of forms. Have you developed a range of
methods of tying? Has your technique improved from one piece to the next?

9. Decide which pieces interest you the most and carry out some variations on
their themes. Try inverting or rotating forms or try combining two or more
forms together in different ways. Which do you like best? Or, do something
quite different from what you have already done. At this point, after
appraising your work, you may want to change the scale to some extent.

TRU Open Learning

VISA 1301: Material and Form U1-7

10. If you havent done so already, start thinking about what could be done to
extend the forms you have so far producedfor example, how they might be
used as parts of a system.

11. Develop three to six examples that differ in form, or are variations on a single
theme. The number will depend on the degree of difficulty, your speed of
working, and so on.

Photographic Documentation and Notebook
Remember to include: photographic documentation of your research and

work product.

Make sure your notebook pages contain the following entries:

o Exploratory studies of ideas based on your work so far, and some ideas
from your thinking, imaging mind about your process and discoveries

Optional entry:
Small-scale exploratory studies with materials

Section 2: Joining Forms
This section gives you the opportunity of bringing forms into relationship with one another
by using joining methods. For Section 2, choose one of the following three projects:

Project 2-A: Join Like Forms


Project 2-B: Join Unlike Forms


Project 2-C: Join Unlike Material and Unlike Forms

In the Section 2 projects, you are expected to use creative, personal technology versus
standard wood-joinery technology. That said, if you choose to work with joining forms, it
would be sensible for you to become familiar with the standard methods.

Standard woodworking joints have evolved because of their functional efficiency.
Illustrations 3 and 4 at the end of this unit show examples of several variations of
wood jointsand common principles shared by similar types.

The joints you develop must be efficient, too; however, you are also expected to research the
visual and plastic aspects of your work, in order to show the functional and the aesthetic in
your pieces. (In sculptural works, visual refers the three-dimensionality of the materials
used, and plastic refers to the malleability of the materials, to how they can be shaped and
changed.) On the functional level, the joints you construct must be efficient, and they must
work. On the aesthetic or sculptural level, your development must show a sense of
structure in the materials you have brought into relationship.

TRU Open Learning

U1-8 Unit 1: Wood

Tips on balancing the functional and aesthetic

To make a wood joint of some degree of functional efficiency, you must first
prepare your wood. Even if your material is already planed, you should
check it for squareyou will need a face side and a face edge to work from.

If you are working with natural, organic material, you may consider it
aesthetically preferable to have a rough finish or even a degree of
primitivism. Rough sawing or adze, gouge, and other tool marks may appeal
more than an overall smooth finish.

Project 2-A: Join Like Forms
The purpose of this project option is to give you an opportunity to work with similar
forms of wood.

Decide on two forms that are identical and cut from standard timber stock.
Work on a small scale for research. For example, take two pieces of easily
worked wood, such as cedar, which might be 5 cm in square section, or 3 cm
by 6 cm, or 3 cm by 10 cm. Initially, they should be 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 inches)
long, for holding with a vise or clamps.

Note: You can easily find imperial to metric conversion tables online, which
can be useful, as both measurement systems are still used.

You may be able to develop new variations on the common principles of
joining wood; for example, a new type of mortise. You may also add one or
more additional pieces, such as wedges, to make a joint effective. Remember
to give some thought to the nature and colour of the materials you are using.

Try to present joints and forms that do not directly repeat tradition, by
providing completely new forms.

If you decide you want to join like pieces of circular-section bamboo,
remember that nails are never used in working with bamboo. Binding with
linear material is required, but it is acceptable to cut the material with a knife
or saw, and to drill holes.

Develop three to six examples, depending on your speed of working, degree
of complexity, and time available.

TRU Open Learning

VISA 1301: Material and Form U1-9

Project 2-B: Join Unlike Forms
The purpose of this project option is to give you an opportunity to create your own
technology in working with wood of different dimensions and forms.

Begin by deciding on your material. Choose material no less than 15 cm (6
inches) in length; otherwise, make your selection from standard timber stock.
There is an immense range of possibilities. You may wish to do variations on
a particular theme or relationship. One of the on-camera students used sheet
plywood with a regular cube; however, you could use sheet plywood with
any square, round, or triangular section material, or with a solid.

When you select your materials, take characteristics of workability, colour,
and grain into consideration.

Remember that you can make each of your experiments with pairs of
different wood sections and forms. For example, try joining machine-
processed timber of geometric character with some natural forms of wood,
such as a piece 10 cm in diameter cut from a small log or a natural fork. Or,
you might try combining flexible branches with rigid, machined timber, or
bamboo with dowelling.

Develop six examples.

Project 2-C: Join Unlike Material and Unlike Forms
The purpose of this project option is to give you an opportunity to experiment with
new relationships between wood and other materials, using some form of wood as
your basic material.

Consider the range of wood pieces you have available and the infinite variety
of other materials that exist. You can use any form of wood. Base your
selection of materials on preference or immediate availability.

You will can also make other decisions about how many types and/or shapes
of other materials you want to join to the woodfor example, do you want to
carry out variations on joining only one other type and form of material to the
wood? If so, you will want to try different ways to join this material. Or, do
you want to join a range of differently shaped pieces of metal or plastic to a
standard timber cut or a natural form of wood?

You may prefer to use different forms of wood with a variety of other
materials. As you decide, carefully consider the characteristics of each type of
material; that is, whether they are hard or soft, rigid or flexible, thin or thick,
simple or complex, and so on.

TRU Open Learning

U1-10 Unit 1: Wood

Tactile and sensory characteristics can be used in either contrasting or
harmonic relationships. For example, wood, as a fibrous material, can be
harmonically related to other fibrous materials, such as felt, fabric, or rope.
Or, wood, as a natural organic material, can be contrasted with synthetic
plastics, elastic, or rubber.

Produce six examples . Some will be fast and easylow techothers will
be more complex and time-consuming. Let your interest and available time
determine how many you do.

Photographic Documentation and Notebook
For whichever one of the Project 2 options you choose, your documentation must
include photographs or video, and drawings of the joints both open and closed to
indicate how they work. Make sure your notebook pages contain drawings of your
ideas about how the joints are designed and function.

Section 3: Transforming Wooden Furniture
The purpose of this project is to transform one or more familiar pieces of wooden
furniture by sawing, reconstruction, and other experimental actions.

If you select a container form, such as a cupboard or chest of drawers, work on the
inside as well as the outside, using additional wood.

You will be able to explore more fully if you avoid projects that are intended to
produce only a functional outcome. There are many of these projects on the Internet.
Avoid plagiarizing these and invent your own project.

Photographic Documentation and Notebook
Make sure your notebook pages contain the following:

Preliminary sketches of your initial transformation plan. Remember, new and
more interesting ideas may occur during the process.

Photographs of your piece(s) of furniture, before, during, and after your
experimental transformative processes

Photos showing both inside and outside views (if you are working with a
container form)

Any relevant notes on what worked well, what did not, and what you
discovered in the process of carrying out this project

TRU Open Learning

VISA 1301: Material and Form U1-11

Notes on the Reproductions
Read these notes on the reproductions shown on the video Wood before you watch it
or watch it again, so that you will know what to look for when the image appears.
One of these reproductions is also in the Postcard Booklet. The Postcard Booklet has
a wide range of additional work in wood. The contents of the Postcard Booklet are
informally grouped according to both units and materials: works in wood (Unit 1)
are before works in metal (Unit 2). Image numbers are not necessarily consecutive.

Nandaimon (Great South Gate). Todaiji Temple. Completed 1195 CE.

Wood, stone; 25.7 m high.

Nara, Japan.

The great southern gate of the Todaiji Temple of Nara, Japan, was built in the twelfth
century. Since the sixth century, the basic structure in Japanese architecture has been
timber framework carrying a peaked roof (or series of roofs). Lipped or gabled, the
roof usually has a concave curve leading to wide overhanging eaves that turn up at
the corners. Although the principal building material is wood, the foundations and
terraces are stone.

Todaiji Temple (interior detail).

The main columns of this massive building are almost eight metres high and
comparable to the stone columns of a European cathedral.

Sheik el-Balad. Egyptian 5th Dynasty. Circa 2500 BCE. (Postcard Booklet: TRU

Sycamore, pegged arm, and inlaid eye; 108.18 cm high.

Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt.

Although wood deteriorates, expanding and contracting according to temperature
and humidity, in a dry climate and protected from insects, it can last for thousands
of yearsas the wooden statue of Sheik el-Balad demonstrates. As a relatively minor
dignitary, he is portrayed directly in wood rather than stone, but the work conforms
to the convention of frontal viewing. Notice how the arms are pegged and fitted to
the torso. This statue, with its formal step forward, also represents a first perilous
advance by the human figure into an increasingly dynamic future. In the history of
the single figure, we can see activity increasing in the passage from early statues to
the twisting figures of the Baroque period.

TRU Open Learning

U1-12 Unit 1: Wood

Initiation masks from Suku and Yaka tribes.

Painted wood and fibre; 56 cm high.

Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

Photograph credit: Merton D. Simpson.

Artisans used wood for simple tools, ritual objects, and other artifacts such as these
African masks, powerful and mysterious in their fibrous tree-bark settings. Each
possesses a distinct structural character. One is spatial, with projecting linear
extensions; the other is more solidly and sculpturally self-contained. Masks were
used for initiations and religious ceremonies, weddings, and funerals.

Early in this century, African art exerted a profound influence on Western artists
such as Picasso, Braque, Brancusi, Matisse, and the Fauvists. However, Western
demands for African sculpture often influenced standards for the traditional arts.

Riemenschneider, Tilman. Group of Mourning Women. 1480.

Detail of the Wiblinger Altarpiece.

Painted linden wood; 127 cm high.

Furstlich Oettingen-Wallersteinsche Bibliothek und Kunstsammlun, Schloss
Harburg, Germany.

The great carved altarpieces of both northern and southern Europe provide
outstanding examples of wood carving, as seen in this detail from a side of the
Wiblinger Altarpiece. This work has been an inspiration for joiners, craftsmen,
builders, architects, designers, and sculptors. Painted and gilded, it shows adept
characterization, with expressive forms and gestures. Great skill and delicacy with
refined detail and complex undercutting of drapery and other forms were made
possible by the physical properties of the close-grained linden wood.

In the fifteenth century, wood carving ceased to be anonymous, and individual
artists were identified by name. Riemenschneider and his contemporary Veit Stoss
were unequalled in their mastery.

Saddle Tree with Design of Court Fans. 18th Century. Japan.

Lacquered wood.

Courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London,

Wood yields readily to toolsto saws, axes, chisels, gouges, and the power tools of
the present. This lacquered and gilded saddle tree is an example of fine Japanese
craftsmanship. The fluent, curvilinear forms are decorated with designs of court fans
privilege. Although designed as a functional objectthe frame of a saddleit meets
the highest aesthetic standards.

TRU Open Learning

VISA 1301: Material and Form U1-13

Picasso, Pablo. Mandolin and Clarinet. 1914.

Painted wood; 57.4 35.9 23 cm.

Picasso Museum, Paris, France.

1991 Pablo Picasso/Vis-Art Copyright Inc.

After looking at objects of great technical efficiency and crafted elegance, it is rather a shock
to see this construction, based on two musical instruments. This slide is included on the
video to remind you that technical skill and high finish arent essential or the main objective
of the artist. Here, Picasso is being innovative with waste material from his work bench or
studio floor. After his Cubist experiments in two dimensions (which began in 1907, rapidly
evolving from analytical to synthetic cubism), he made a logical progression from collage to
relief and then to a series of explorations in the three dimensions.

Picasso nailed pieces of geometrically shaped waste together freely and instinctively,
exploiting the natural colour and form of the materials and adding a little enlivening
and descriptive black and white paint. The white-painted, projecting curve defined
the space. Picasso the painter put aside the illusion of the canvas and projected his
image forward into real space. Hepworth, Barbara. Pelagos. 1946.

Chestnut wood, paint, string; 37 39 33 cm.

Tate Gallery, London, England.

Credit: Art Resource, New York, USA.

Contrast Picassos Mandolin and Clarinet with Hepworths sculpture Pelagos, which



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