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UOK Mood Changes Discussion

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Essentials of Organizational Behavior Fourteenth Edition Chapter 4 Emotions and Moods Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Differentiate between emotions and moods. 2. Identify the sources of emotions and moods. 3. Show the impact emotional labor has on employees. 4. Describe affective events theory. 5. Describe emotional intelligence. 6. Identify strategies for emotion regulation. 7. Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues. Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Affect, Emotions, and Moods Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Basic Emotions • Six universal emotions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Anger Fear Sadness Happiness Disgust Surprise Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Moral Emotions • Emotions that have moral implications because of our instant judgment of the situation that evokes them – Moral disgust Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect • Positive affect: a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, enthusiasm, and elation at the high end (high positive affect) and boredom, depression, and fatigue at the low end (low positive affect) • Negative affect: a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end (high negative affect) and contentedness, calmness, and serenity at the low end (low negative affect) Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Affect Circumplex Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Experiencing Moods and Emotions • Positive moods are somewhat more common than negative moods – Positivity offset: at zero input, most people experience a mildly positive mood Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Function of Emotions and Moods • Emotions and Rationality – Emotions are critical to rational thought: they help us understand the world around us • Emotions and Ethics – New research suggests that ethical behavior may be based to some degree on emotions and feelings Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sources of Emotions and Moods (1 of 2) • Personality – Some people experience certain moods and emotions more frequently than others – Affect intensity: experiencing the same emotions with different intensities • Time of day – People vary in their moods by time of day • Day of the week – People tend to be in their best mood on the weekend Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sources of Emotions and Moods (2 of 2) Time-of-Day Effects on Moods of U.S. Adults as Rated from Twitter Postings Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. More Sources • Weather – Illusory correlation ▪ No impact according to research • Stress – Increased stress worsens moods • Sleep – Lack of sleep increases negative emotions and impairs decision making Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Even More Sources • Exercise – Mildly enhances positive mood • Age – Older people experience negative emotions less frequently • Sex – Women show greater emotional expression, experience emotions more intensely, and display more frequent expressions of emotions – Could be due to socialization Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emotional Labor • Emotional labor: an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work • Emotional dissonance: when an employee has to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Felt vs. Displayed Emotions • Felt Emotions: – The individual’s actual emotions • Displayed Emotions: – The learned emotions that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job – Surface Acting – hiding one’s true emotions – Deep Acting – trying to change one’s feelings based on display rules Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Affective Events Theory • How do emotions and moods influence job performance and satisfaction? • Affective events theory (AET): employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work, and this reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emotional Intelligence (1 of 2) • Emotional intelligence: a person’s ability to: – Perceive emotions in the self and others – Understand the meaning of these emotions – Regulate one’s emotions in a cascading model Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emotional Intelligence (2 of 2) A Cascading Model of Emotional Intelligence Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emotional Intelligence on Trial The case for: The case against: • Intuitive appeal – it makes sense • EI is too vague a concept • EI predicts criteria that matter –positively correlated to high job performance • EI can’t be measured • Study suggests that EI is neurologically based • EI is so closely related to intelligence and personality that it is not unique when those factors are controlled Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emotion Regulation • Emotion regulation: identifying and modifying the emotions you feel • Effective emotion regulation techniques include: – Acknowledging emotional responses to situations – Venting Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. OB Applications of Emotions and Moods • Selection – Employers should consider EI a factor in hiring for jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction • Decision Making – Positive emotions can increase problem-solving skills and help us understand and analyze new information • Creativity – Positive moods and feedback may increase creativity Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. More OB Applications of Emotions and Moods • Motivation – Promoting positive moods may give a more motivated workforce • Leadership – Emotions help convey messages more effectively • Customer Service – Customers “catch” emotions from employees, called emotional contagion Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Even More OB Applications of Emotions and Moods • Job Attitudes – Emotions at work get carried home but rarely carry over to the next day • Deviant Workplace Behaviors – Those who feel negative emotions are more likely to engage in deviant behavior at work • Safety and Injury at Work – Bad moods can contribute to injuries on the job Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Implications for Managers (1 of 2) • Recognize that emotions are a natural part of the workplace and good management does not mean creating an emotion-free environment • To foster creative decision making, creativity, and motivation in employees, model positive emotions and moods as much as is authentically possible • Provide positive feedback to increase the positivity of employees. Of course, it also helps to hire people who are predisposed to positive moods. Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Implications for Managers (2 of 2) • In the service sector, encourage positive displays of emotion, which make customers feel more positive and thus improve customer service interactions and negotiations • Understand the role of emotions and moods to significantly improve your ability to explain and predict your coworkers’ and employees’ behavior Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 3.1 Standard cash flow diagram indicating points in time for P, F, A, and G. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.2 Cash flow diagram for Example 3-1. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.3 Cash flow diagram for Example 3-2 showing deferred uniform and gradient series. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.4 Cash flow diagram for Example 3-3. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.5 Relationship between NPV and IRR for Example 3-12. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.6 NPV plot for more than one change in sign. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.7 Relationship between NPV and IRR for independent investment. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.8 Breakeven chart diagram for Example 3-16. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.9 Breakeven chart diagram for Example 3-17. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.10 Diagram for utility assessment. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 3.1 Assessed Utilities for Project Manager Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.11 Utility function obtained from data in Table 3.1. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 3.2 Payoff Matrix for New Product Development Example Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 3.3 Utility Matrix for New Product Development Example Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.12 Three general types of utility functions. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.13 Arrangement of rotary combustor. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.14 Details of rotary combustor. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3.15 Preference curve for risk-averse decision maker. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3e Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein Copyright © 2017, 2005, and 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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