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The Joint Planning Process (JPP) Exam: “Operation Chromite”

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C515 JPP

Instructions: The Joint Planning Process (JPP) Exam is worth 60% of the C500 grade and is due at the end of the block, after lesson C515. Specifically, this exam has ten requirements for you to apply the JPP to an operational scenario.

Your answers to the exam questions must be typed and double-spaced throughout, and must use Times New Roman 12-pitch font and one-inch margins. Write your answers as complete sentences, not as bulletized comments.

The primary reading for the exam is Chapter II “Operation Chromite” of Joint Military Operations Historical Collection (dated 15 July 1997). Use ONLY the version in this lesson (it will also be attached). Read this document thoroughly, and then answer the exam questions, which begin on page three of this document. The primary doctrinal reference is Joint Publication 5-0 The Operations Process (2011). Other references include:

If you state information from the lessons, readings, or doctrinal references as part of your answer, you must give a citation in accordance with ST 22-2. You may use parenthetical citations, endnotes, or footnotes.

Overview: In June 1950, forces of the North Korea’s People’s Army (NKPA) invaded South Korea with the intent of unifying Korea. President Truman ordered General MacArthur, Commander-in-Chief Far East, to use his air and sea forces to support the Republic of Korea forces south of the 38th Parallel. General MacArthur visited Korea to personally assess the situation and realized that only the immediate commitment of ground forces could stop NKPA forces. NKPA spearheads were successful in pushing United Nation forces south to the Naktong River. General Walton Walker, Commander of the US Army Eighth Army, and General MacArthur decided that they must stand and fight or be ejected from Korea. It was here that the 140-mile-long Pusan Perimeter was established. General MacArthur’s successful campaigns across the Pacific during World War II gave him deep appreciation for amphibious operations. He decided upon an amphibious operation, Operation Chromite, for his counterattack. The planning and execution of Operation Chromite by General Douglas MacArthur in September 1950 established the operational art that guides joint operations today. Modern warfare demands a joint approach (JP 5-0).

Note: Regurgitating doctrine is NOT enough to receive a passing grade on the exam; you must be able to APPLY what you have learned about operational design and JPP.

1. Operational Environment [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 5-0 states that “The operational environment is the composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander…Included within these areas are the adversary, friendly, and neutral actors that are relevant to a specific joint operation.” The Commander must be able to describe the current environment and how the environment should look when operations conclude to visualize an approach to solving the problem.

Using the reading on Operation Chromite, describe the operational environment in the summer of 1950. Your analysis of the operational environment should include, but is not limited to:

** What does the current operational environment look like? Be sure to describe the conditions that have led up to the dire situation facing the U.S. Eighth Army at the Pusan Perimeter.

** How does General MacArthur’s vision for Operation Chromite relieve NKPA pressure on the U.S. Eighth Army in the Pusan Perimeter?

2. Strategic Guidance [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page. You should write one paragraph for each question below.]

JP 5-0 states that “The President, Secretary of Defense, and Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff with appropriate consultation with additional NSC members, other USG departments and agencies, and multinational partners formulate strategic end states with suitable and feasible national strategic objectives that reflect US national interests.”

** What is General MacArthur’s vision for the operational environment once Operation Chromite is concluded (end state)?

** What are the roles of JTF 7 and X Corps in achieving General MacArthur’s end state?

3. Decisive Points [10 points (5 points for each decisive point). Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 5-0 states that a “decisive point is a geographic place, specific key event, critical factor, or function that when acted upon, allows a commander to gain a marked advantage over an adversary or contributes materially to achieving success (e.g., creating a desired effect, achieving an objective).”

** Identify and justify TWO key decisive points for Operation Chromite.

4. Operational Maneuver [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 3-0 describes maneuver as “the employment of forces in the operational area through movement in combination with fires to achieve a position of advantage in respect to the enemy. Maneuver of forces relative to enemy COGs can be key to the JFC’s mission accomplishment. Through maneuver, the JFC can concentrate forces at decisive points to achieve surprise, psychological effects, and physical momentum. Maneuver also may enable or exploit the effects of massed or precision fires.”

** Describe how Operation Chromite supports the breakout of the Eighth Army at the Pusan Perimeter. In your description, EXPLAIN how Operation Chromite (1) reverses the situation at the Pusan Perimeter and (2) places the Allied forces in an advantageous position over the NKPA.

NOTE: As part of your answer, you must address operational maneuver for BOTH parts. You should write one paragraph for each part.



5. Joint Fires [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 3-09 states that “Integral to the CONOPS is the concept of fires. The concept of fires describes how lethal and non-lethal joint fires will be synchronized and integrated to support the Joint Force Commander’s operational objectives. The JFC determines the enemy’s center of gravity (COG), associated critical factors, and decisive points and how the application of fires can assist in creating the desired effects to attain the objective.”

** You are the Fires Officer on General MacArthur’s Staff. General MacArthur has tasked you to describe your concept how Joint Fires will support Operation Chromite. He asked you to specifically describe joint fire support for (1) landing forces at Inchon, (2) attacking the NKPA’s lines of communications, and (3) interdicting any NKPA attempts to counterattack or reinforce forces vicinity Inchon and Seoul.

NOTE: As part of your answer, you must address joint fire support for all THREE parts. You should write one paragraph for each part.




6. Operational Reach [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 5-0 states that “Operational reach is the distance and duration across which a joint force can successfully employ military capabilities.”

** Explain: (1) how the other Services (Air Force, Marines, and Navy) provided General MacArthur with operational reach in Operation Chromite, and (2) how that operational reach provided an advantage to the Allies over just reinforcing the Eighth Army inside the Pusan Perimeter.

NOTE: As part of your answer, you must address BOTH parts and include all THREE US Services: Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy. You should write one paragraph for each part.



7. Arranging Operations [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 5-0 states that “Commanders must determine the best arrangement of joint force and component operations to conduct the assigned tasks and joint force mission. This arrangement often will be a combination of simultaneous and sequential operations to reach the end state conditions with the least cost in personnel and other resources. Thinking about the best arrangement helps determine the tempo of activities in time, space, and purpose. Planners should consider factors such as simultaneity, depth, timing, and tempo when arranging operations.”

** Describe how General MacArthur’s staff used (1) simultaneity, (2) depth, (3) timing, and (4) tempo in executing Operation Chromite in conjunction with Eighth Army activities inside the Pusan Perimeter.

NOTE: As part of your answer, you must address all FOUR parts of arranging operations. You should write 2-3 sentences for each part.





8. Defeat Mechanisms [10 points (5 points for each defeat mechanism). Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 5-0 states: “Defeat mechanisms primarily apply in combat operations against an active enemy force. Combat aims at defeating armed enemies – regular, irregular, or both, through the organized application of force to kill, destroy, or capture by all means necessary.”

** Select TWO of the four defeat mechanisms from the list below.

· Destroy

· Dislocate

· Disintegrate

· Isolate

For each element selected, explain how General MacArthur used the defeat mechanism to defeat the NKPA. For a review, JP 5-0 page IV-31 provides details on each of the four defeat mechanisms. You should write one paragraph for each defeat mechanism you select.



9. Direct and Indirect Approach [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page.]

JP 5-0 states: “The approach is the manner in which a commander contends with a center of gravity (COG).”

** Explain: (1) which approach did General MacArthur use in attacking the NKPA and (2) why he chose that approach.

NOTE: As part of your answer, you must address BOTH parts. You should write one paragraph for each part.



10. Operational Risks [10 points. Do not exceed one typed page.]

According to JP 5-0, “Operational risk defines aspects of the campaign or operation in which the commander will accept risk in lower or partial achievement or temporary conditions. It also describes areas in which it is not acceptable to accept such lower or intermediate conditions.”

** (1) Identify FIVE major risks associated with Operation Chromite, and (2) explain HOW General MacArthur’s staff mitigated those five major risks.

NOTE: As part of your answer, you must complete the table below. For each mitigation, write 2-3 sentences; the table will expand for your answers.

Risk 1:Mitigation:
Risk 2:Mitigation:
Risk 3:Mitigation:
Risk 4:Mitigation:
Risk 5:Mitigation:


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