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Research paper(Hist 1301) 1 Constitution Term Paper For this assignment you will consider whether or not the U.S. Constitution is counter- r

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Research paper(Hist 1301)

1

Constitution Term Paper

For this assignment you will consider whether or not the U.S. Constitution is counter-

revolutionary and discuss its democratic nature. In other words, does the Constitution

establish a democracy. The paper should be divided into four sections:

1. The first section should be a telling of the creation of the Constitution. How was

it created? Why?

2. Part two should discuss the counter-revolutionary nature of the Constitution.

3. Part three should discuss whether or not the U.S. is a democracy based on the

Constitution.

4. The fourth and final part is the conclusion, in which you discuss the

consequences/legacy of these two themes. For instance, if the Constitution is

counter-revolutionary, then what does that mean for us today? What did it mean

for previous Americans?

Guidelines:

1. Your paper should be between 1250 to 1500 words (not including header, title or

bibliography), which comes out to roughly 4 to 5 pages in length.

2. You must use a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 6 sources in your paper, which

will be written according to my style/writing guide posted on BB/Canvas (including a

minimum of 6 internal citations). To uncover the best sources, you will need to read

as many as 8+ sources, the more the better for knowledge of your topic. Do not

shortchange this process. Often the best sources are found after several days of

library or on-line research. The first sources you read are not always the best or

the most credible or insightful.

You will be required to use at least one primary source (the verbiage of a

law, a constitutional amendment, a groups manifesto or a policy). Other

sources may include but are not be limited to monographs (books written

about a specific subject), TV documentaries, film documentaries, polls,

journals, articles, and speeches.

You must use a minimum of 1 monograph; a book specifically written about a

topic or theme.

**Wikipedia is not allowed its a good starting point to find general information but

should not be utilized as an official source**

2

To complete the assignment, you will need to consider/answer the following questions:

1. What does counter-revolutionary mean?

2. How did the first plan of government, the Articles of Confederation, differ from

the Constitution? What were its strengths and weaknesses?

3. Was the Constitution an abandonment of the ideals of the American Revolution? If

so, how?

4. Whom does the Constitution serve vs the Articles of Confederation? Why is this

significant?

5. Where does power reside in the relationship between people and government under

the Constitution?

6. Was the Constitution essential to assure our survival as a nation?

7. If you could change the Constitution, what changes would you make and why?

Plagiarism:

Plagiarism is a very serious offense. The penalty for plagiarizing your research

paper (not documenting sources, copying information from others without giving

credit, buying a paper online, etc) is a grade of 0 for the assignment and

possibly an F for your final grade. You do not want an F showing up on a

transcript as it will decrease your chances of transferring to another

educational institution. Do your own work and cite any and all outside sources

properly according to parenthetical format (see my writing/style guide for instructions

on citing). When in doubt, make an appointment with

your instructor (and do not make the appointment the afternoon of the day

before the paper is due).

IMPORTANT NOTES:

The first step you should take in writing a research/term paper is writing an

OUTLINE.

After writing your outline it is easy to develop everything into sentences and

paragraphs

Many students have difficulty formulating proper sentences and paragraphs

because they have not started with an outline. IT MAKES A DIFFERENCE!

Print out your final draft. Read it. Then re-read it. Make corrections – it is not

going to be perfect the first time through.

Then give a draft to someone else to read – friend, parent, teacher, whatever.

Listen to their suggestions and then make MORE CORRECTIONS.

It is unlikely that anything you write will be perfect the first time. Get used to

writing and re-writing your papers. Your skills as a writer will only improve. 1

Writing Guidelines

Professor J. Bennett

1. FONT: Use Times New Roman 12-point font

2. PAGE NUMBERS: Insert page numbers in the same font as your text at the bottom
center of the page by using the Insert function of your word processing program.

3. HEADING: In the upper-right hand corner of the first page insert the following make
sure that you single-space your heading.

First Name Last Name

HIST 1301/1302.Section #

Assignment Name

4. TITLE: All papers (unless its book review or response/reaction paper) must have a title
that suggests your theme in a creative way. Skip a pace after the header, and place your

title in the center of the page. DO NOT PUT YOUR TITLE IN BOLD FONT, DO NOT

DOUBLE-SPACE YOUR TITLE, DO NOT UNDERLINE IT, DO NOT ITALICIZE IT,

AND DO NOT PUT IT IN QUOTATION MARKS. Capitalize the first letter of all nouns

and verbs, and put all articles and propositions in lower case. Then skip a space and begin

your prose.

5. SPACING: Double space only your prose.

6. MARGINS: Set margins at 1 on all sides. Most word processors usually have this preset.
Use only left-hand margin justification.

7. INDENT PARAGRAPHS: Indent to indicate a new paragraph. DO NOT SKIP A SPACE
BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS

8. CITATIONS: If citing or quoting material there is no need to use endnotes or footnotes.
Instead use parenthetical citations by placing relevant source information in parentheses

after a quote or a paraphrase. This means that the author’s last name, the sources year of

publication, and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must

appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works

Cited/Bibliography page. The author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in

parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always

appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence, ex. (Bennett 2013, 13) or

(Buzzanco 2004, 67).

9. USE THE THIRD PERSON POINT OF VIEW: Never use I, my, or otherwise refer
to yourself in formal academic writing. You should also avoid using the second person

point of view, such as by referring to the reader as you. Instead, write directly about

your subject matter in the third person.

2

For example, replace I think the most important part of your day is having a
good breakfast, with The most important part of the day is having a good

breakfast, or A nutritious breakfast is an important part of a healthy diet.

10. USE OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE INSTEAD OF INFORMAL EXPRESSIONS: Informal
expressions include slang, colloquialisms, clichs, and contractions. Theyre common in

speech and casual conversations, but they arent appropriate for academic writing.

Slang words and colloquialisms are casual expressions shared by a region or
social group, like lit, basic, bae, extra, turnt, wanna, gonna, got

it, sank/sunk in.

Clichs are overused expressions that have become meaningless or boring, such
as only time will tell, actions speak louder than words, the grass is always

greener on the other side, and you cant judge a book by its cover.

Examples of contractions include dont, wouldnt, hasnt, and its.
Instead of using them, spell out the words in full.

11. INTRODUCTIONS vs. CONCLUSIONS: These are actually different! However, you
may have been taught that a conclusion is just a restatement of your introduction. Here is

the difference. Your introduction explains the question youre going to address, including

who cares about it and why. And then your conclusion is about the answer: you explain

how all the stuff in the body of your paper fulfilled your promise and thoroughly

answered the question. So, the structure is question, evidence, answer. 1

Writing Guidelines

Professor J. Bennett

1. FONT: Use Times New Roman 12-point font

2. PAGE NUMBERS: Insert page numbers in the same font as your text at the bottom
center of the page by using the Insert function of your word processing program.

3. HEADING: In the upper-right hand corner of the first page insert the following make
sure that you single-space your heading.

First Name Last Name

HIST 1301/1302.Section #

Assignment Name

4. TITLE: All papers (unless its book review or response/reaction paper) must have a title
that suggests your theme in a creative way. Skip a pace after the header, and place your

title in the center of the page. DO NOT PUT YOUR TITLE IN BOLD FONT, DO NOT

DOUBLE-SPACE YOUR TITLE, DO NOT UNDERLINE IT, DO NOT ITALICIZE IT,

AND DO NOT PUT IT IN QUOTATION MARKS. Capitalize the first letter of all nouns

and verbs, and put all articles and propositions in lower case. Then skip a space and begin

your prose.

5. SPACING: Double space only your prose.

6. MARGINS: Set margins at 1 on all sides. Most word processors usually have this preset.
Use only left-hand margin justification.

7. INDENT PARAGRAPHS: Indent to indicate a new paragraph. DO NOT SKIP A SPACE
BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS

8. CITATIONS: If citing or quoting material there is no need to use endnotes or footnotes.
Instead use parenthetical citations by placing relevant source information in parentheses

after a quote or a paraphrase. This means that the author’s last name, the sources year of

publication, and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must

appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works

Cited/Bibliography page. The author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in

parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always

appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence, ex. (Bennett 2013, 13) or

(Buzzanco 2004, 67).

9. USE THE THIRD PERSON POINT OF VIEW: Never use I, my, or otherwise refer
to yourself in formal academic writing. You should also avoid using the second person

point of view, such as by referring to the reader as you. Instead, write directly about

your subject matter in the third person.

2

For example, replace I think the most important part of your day is having a
good breakfast, with The most important part of the day is having a good

breakfast, or A nutritious breakfast is an important part of a healthy diet.

10. USE OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE INSTEAD OF INFORMAL EXPRESSIONS: Informal
expressions include slang, colloquialisms, clichs, and contractions. Theyre common in

speech and casual conversations, but they arent appropriate for academic writing.

Slang words and colloquialisms are casual expressions shared by a region or
social group, like lit, basic, bae, extra, turnt, wanna, gonna, got

it, sank/sunk in.

Clichs are overused expressions that have become meaningless or boring, such
as only time will tell, actions speak louder than words, the grass is always

greener on the other side, and you cant judge a book by its cover.

Examples of contractions include dont, wouldnt, hasnt, and its.
Instead of using them, spell out the words in full.

11. INTRODUCTIONS vs. CONCLUSIONS: These are actually different! However, you
may have been taught that a conclusion is just a restatement of your introduction. Here is

the difference. Your introduction explains the question youre going to address, including

who cares about it and why. And then your conclusion is about the answer: you explain

how all the stuff in the body of your paper fulfilled your promise and thoroughly

answered the question. So, the structure is question, evidence, answer.

2

For example, replace I think the most important part of your day is having a

good breakfast, with The most important part of the day is having a good

breakfast, or A nutritious breakfast is an important part of a healthy diet.

2. USE OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE INSTEAD OF INFORMAL EXPRESSIONS: Informal

expressions include slang, colloquialisms, clichs, and contractions. Theyre common in

speech and casual conversations, but they arent appropriate for academic writing.

Slang words and colloquialisms are casual expressions shared by a region or
social group, like lit, basic, bae, extra, turnt, wanna, gonna, got

it, sank/sunk in.

Clichs are overused expressions that have become meaningless or boring, such

as only time will tell, actions speak louder than words, the grass is always

greener on the other side, and you cant judge a book by its cover.

Examples of contractions include dont, wouldnt, hasnt, and its.

Instead of using them, spell out the words in full.

3. INTRODUCTIONS vs. CONCLUSIONS: These are actually different! However, you

may have been taught that a conclusion is just a restatement of your introduction. Here is

the difference. Your introduction explains the question youre going to address, including

who cares about it and why. And then your conclusion is about the answer: you explain

how all the stuff in the body of your paper fulfilled your promise and thoroughly

answered the question. So, the structure is question, evidence, answer.

1

Max Holocher

HIST 1302.362

Term Paper

A Vile Democracy

United States politics is where many of the worlds most important and impactful

decisions are made, and since a countrys politics is inextricably tied to its political system, the

quality of the United States political system should be of utmost importance to not only the

citizens of the United States, but to the citizens of the world. This begs the question though: what

is a good political system to have? While there is not a complete consensus on this question,

popular thought regards democracy to be the most just and equitable political system. The

reasoning is that government by the people, or majority rule, brings about the maximum amount

of satisfaction possible among a population. Many citizens of the United States take pride in their

countrys seemingly fair democracy, but if one looks more critically though, it is clear that the

U.S. is and has been an extremely limited democracy since its founding, and that it was created

this way intentionally. The suppression of the will of the people can be seen all the way from the

countrys founding to the current dissonance between public opinion and enacted policy.

Democracy can take on many forms. One possibility is a direct democracy where

constituents vote on each and every issue (Dallas). Another possibility is a representative

democracy where constituents vote for politicians to represent them and their interests (Dallas).

Whatever form a political system takes, in order for it to be considered democratic, the

government must express the will of the people. This is the true test of a democracys quality and

is precisely where America fails.

In the book Who Rules the World? , Noam Chomsky writes about the vast differences

between the general publics views and recent political trends, and explains that the sizable

2

divide is due to the substantial increase of corporate power in U.S. politics. In his eyes, powerful

interest groups have shifted both Republicans and Democrats far to the right of the U.S. populace

on many of the countrys most important issues (Chomsky 2017, 62). In defense of this claim, he

points out that even though the most important issue to the public is the unemployment crisis, the

discussion taking place in Washington is disproportionately about the deficit (Chomsky 2017,

62). He writes that U.S. financial institutions simply have enough money and power to buy

politicians and control the conversation (Chomsky 2017, 64). To further illustrate his point, he

cites another national opinion poll regarding taxing the wealthy. While the media and congress

may depict it as a divisive and partisan issue, the poll Chomsky reproduces has 72% of the public

in favor of reducing the deficit by taxing the rich (Chomsky 2017, 62). This is an overwhelming

majority, but its effect remains largely unseen in U.S. politics. With the will of the people as

ineffectual as it is, the U.S. should not be considered a true democracy.

As iconoclastic as it may be to say, the peoples lack of influence in the U.S. political

system is inarguably by design. While many in the U.S. revere the founding fathers as beacons of

democratic values, the truth is much more complicated. Though they rebelled against England

due to a lack of representation, many of the founders fought purely for their own interests, and

not for principles of justice and fairness like many people think. The founders were the elite of

the time, and many just wanted to insulate themselves and their power. This attitude can be

clearly seen with the expressed views of James Madison. In the essay Federalist No. 10,

Madison writes “democracy is the most vile form of government. Democracies have ever been

spectacles of turbulence and contention incompatible with personal security or the rights of

property” (Madison 1975). In his eyes, democracy is synonymous to mob rule, and he feared if

the U.S. became a democracy, the citizens of the country would enact substantial property/wealth

3

redistribution. This obviously conflicted with the interests of the wealthy founders, and the fear

of this scenario informed their views of democracy and the drafting of the Constitution as well.

Within the United States founding document, there are a variety of purposeful buffers

against democracy. For example, before the 17th amendment, the Constitution gave state

legislatures the power to appoint senators instead of having them be directly elected by the

people (The Constitution 1986). This was not a matter of practicality though, since the

founders had the members of the house be elected by state citizens (The Constitution 1986).

The only reason why theyd organize the government this way is to suppress the will of the

people. Its much easier to bribe a few state officials than the population of a state. The most

egregious example of democratic suppression found within the Constitution is the organization of

presidential elections. Firstly, the president is not chosen by the people, but is voted on by the

Electoral College (The Constitution 1986). While one could argue that this is an example of

indirect democracy since members of the Electoral College are voted on by the people, this

process is ultimately unnecessary as electors only vote on one issue. The introduction of middle

men does not save voters any time or thought and serves no purpose other than to be a buffer

against the will of the people. Secondly, the electoral college prescribes different values to

different voters based on their residential state (The Constitution 1986). This mechanic is a

simple and obvious violation of the democratic value of fairness and often works against the

majority. In fact, the current president of the U.S. lost the popular vote by 2.8 million votes

(Kentish 2016). While one could argue that this system prevents bigger states from dominating

smaller states, it is inarguable that it is undemocratic.

When one studies the countrys history, it becomes clear that the U.S. is and has been an

extremely limited democracy for the entirety of its existence, and that it was all by design. This

4

can be seen with the founders outspoken views on democracy, the organization of the

government in the Constitution, and the current divide between the public and its government.

The will of the people has been and still is purposely suppressed for the benefit of the elite, and

the push to fix the countrys democracy in spite of these powerful interests is the most important

issue facing U.S. citizens today. If the U.S. can organize its political system in a way to express

the will of the people, the citizens of the country could finally take the destiny of their country

into their own hands. Theres a reason why elites, now and then, so greatly fear the

empowerment of everyday citizens, and it is because it would undoubtedly bring about real and

substantial change. The true challenge is changing a system that refuses to listen. While there are

many ways to attack this problem, the idea of passing one revolutionary bill is the most plausible,

and that bill would be Andrew Yangs Democracy Dollars. This initiative would give every

eligible U.S. voter $100 to donate to the political candidates of their liking, which would

effectively flood the market and incentivize politicians to listen to the general population (Yang).

Instead of having to get all of their campaign funds from powerful interest groups, politicians

could build powerful grassroots campaigns and garner real support from everyday citizens

(Yang). This is one way to fix the countrys democracy; other options might not be so

diplomatic.

5

Bibliography

Chomsky, Noam. Who Rules the World? New York, NY: Picador, 2017.

Dallas Learning Solutions. The Meaning of Democracy. Roots of American Government.

https://dlc.dcccd.edu/usgov1-1/the-meaning-of-democracy (accessed December 1, 2019).

Kentish, Benjamin. Donald Trump has lost popular vote by greater margin than any US

President. independent.co.uk. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-

elections/donald-trump-lost-pop ular-vote-hillary-clinton-us-election-president-history-

a7470116.html (accessed December 1, 2019).

Madison, James. The Federalist: No. 10. Milwaukee: Council on Urban Life, 1975.

The Constitution of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Commission on the Bicentennial of the

U.S. Constitution, 1986.

Yang, Andrew. Democracy Dollars. Yang2020.com.

https://www.yang2020.com/policies/democracydollars/ (accessed December 1, 2019).

2

divide is due to the substantial increase of corporate power in U.S. politics. In his eyes,

powerful interest groups have shifted both Republicans and Democrats far to the right of the U.S.

populace on many of the countrys most important issues (Chomsky 2017, 62). In defense of this

claim, he points out that even though the most important issue to the public is the unemployment

crisis, the discussion taking place in Washington is disproportionately about the deficit

(Chomsky 2017, 62). He writes that U.S. financial institutions simply have enough money and

power to buy politicians and control the conversation (Chomsky 2017, 64). To further illustrate

his point, he cites another national opinion poll regarding taxing the wealthy. While the media

and congress may depict it as a divisive and partisan issue, the poll Chomsky reproduces has

72% of the public in favor of reducing the deficit by taxing the rich (Chomsky 2017, 62). This is

an overwhelming majority, but its effect remains largely unseen in U.S. politics. With the will of

the people as ineffectual as it is, the U.S. should not be considered a true democracy.

As iconoclastic as it may be to say, the peoples lack of influence in the U.S. political

system is inarguably by design. While many in the U.S. revere the founding fathers as beacons of

democratic values, the truth is much more complicated. Though they rebelled against England

due to a lack of representation, many of the founders fought purely for their own interests, and

not for principles of justice and fairness like many people think. The founders were the elite of

the time, and many just wanted to insulate themselves and their power. This attitude can be

clearly seen with the expressed views of James Madison. In the essay Federalist No. 10,

Madison writes “democracy is the most vile form of government. Democracies have ever been

spectacles of turbulence and contention incompatible with personal security or the rights of

property” (Madison 1975). In his eyes, democracy is synonymous to mob rule, and he feared if

the U.S. became a democracy, the citizens of the country would enact substantial property/wealt. The recommendations in this guide are based on the 7th edition (2007) of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers by Kate L. Turabian. For more in-depth explanation of formatting and preparing a bibliography, please consult the 7th edition of the manual or the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (2003).

Chicago / Turabian Style
General notes about this guide
It is important to note that individual instructors may vary from these recommendations and it is always wise to consult with your instructor before formatting and submitting your work.

The following formatting guidelines are intended for course papers only. If you are writing a thesis or dis- sertation please follow the formatting guidelines set up by your department or University or consult the 7th edition (2007) of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers.

The following examples follow the notes-bibliography style of citation, which is widely used in the humanities and social sciences. If you are not certain which style to use, consult your instructor.

Numbers in parentheses, i.e. (375) indicate the page number of the 7th edition (2007) of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers by Kate
L. Turabian.
Chicago/Turabian 7th Ed. Guide – 2010 Cardinal Stritch University Library
1

Quick Reference Guide
7th Edition

Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography (147-150 and 404)
In addition to the footnote or endnote for each source, you also list all of your sources at the end of the paper in the bibliography.
The form of citations in your bibliography differs from the footnote or endnote form.
Label the first page Bibliography at the top of the page, do not repeat the title on subsequent pages.
Leave two blank lines between the title and the first item listed and one blank line between items.
Bibliographic entries use hanging indentation.
Arrange the list alphabetically by the last name of the author or editor.

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FORMATTING

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Barth, Gunther. Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850- 1870. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.
The following are examples of citations in notes-bibliography style. This is not an exhaustive list. For further examples please consult the Turabian Manual.

Book Citation – General Format
Book by One Author (162)

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CITATION – Books

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Howe, Deborah, James Howe, and Alan Daniel. Bunnicula: A Rabbit Tale of Mystery.
New York: Anthem, 1979.

Gagliano, Andrew, Ann Zielke, Emily Wagner, and Danielle Kerr. How to Build an Elevator. Chicago: Construction Press, 2009.
Include all of the authors in the bibliographic entry, no matter how many, do not use et al.

Book by Four or More Authors (163)

Book by Two or More Authors (163)

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CITATION – Books

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Green, Chuck, ed. Green Gross. New York: Color Press, 2006. Rover, Charles, trans. Orange Shoes. New York: Color Press, 2003.

Zielke, Ann. Different People. In Surviving the College Experience, edited by Thomas Smith, 54-78. New York: College Press, 1999.

Editor or Translator in Place of an Author (164)
Chapter or Other Part of a Book (178)

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7
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CITATION – Books

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Sevick, Gina. Forward to Surviving the College Experience, by Margaret Wagner, xx-
xxii. New York: College Press, 1999.

Basic History of Immigration. San Francisco: Migration Press, 2009.

Preface, Foreward, or Introduction (178)
An Anonymous Book (165)

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CITATION – Books

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Gato, Grace. How to Tie Your Shoes. 3rd ed. Chicago: Footwear Press, 2005.

Caballero, Sylvia. How to Teach First Graders. Masters thesis, University of Wisconsin, 2004.

Caballero, Sylvia. How to Teach First Graders. PhD diss., University of Wisconsin, 2004.

Edition Other than the First (171)
Unpublished Thesis or Dissertation (194)

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CITATION – Books

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

First name Last name, Title of Article. Title of Journal Volume number (Year): inclusive page numbers.

Crate, Brice. Queer Theory in English Literature. Queer Theory Quarterly 16 (June 2008): 230-260.

Wagner, Sarah. Why Kids Cant Learn. Education in Wisconsin Quarterly 56, no. 3 (1999): 200-215.

Print Periodical – General Format
An Article in a Print Journal (181-185)

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CITATION – Print Periodicals

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Craven, Chris. Vampires, Vampires, Vampires. Vampire Magazine, January 24, 2003.

An Article in a Newspaper (186-187)
You only need to include newspaper articles that are critical to your argument or are frequently cited in your bibliography.
An Article in a Popular Magazine (185-186)

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CITATION – Print Periodicals

Note
EXAMPLE
Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Barth, Gunter. Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850- 1870. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964. NetLibrary e-book.

Crate, Brice. Queer Theory in English Literature. Queer Theory Quarterly 16 (June 2008): 230-260.
http://jstor.org/038493484% (accessed July 14, 2009).

An Article from an Online Database (185)
Follow the guidelines for a print journal article and include the URL and access date.
E-book (181)

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CITATION – Electronic Resources

Note
EXAMPLE

Bibliography
EXAMPLE

Marks, Craig. How to Build Paper Airplanes. Paper Airplanes. http://paperairplanes.com/learningtools (accessed June 1, 2006).

Website (198)

Include as much of the following information as you can: author, title of page, title or owner of site, URL, and access date.

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CITATION – Electronic Resources

Barth, Gunther. Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850-1870.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.

Higham, John. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925.
New York: Anthem, 1970.

Lau, Estelle. Paper families: Identiy, Immigration Administration, and Chinese Exclusion.
Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Bibliography
4

!

NOTE
A paper should include
a bibliography.

Example Bibliography

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EXAMPLES

Sample 1

Sample 2

1

Works Cited

Carroll, Al. How Would You Change the Constitution? Heres My Proposal. History News

Network. https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/156799 (accessed March 11, 2018).

Klarman, Michael J. The Framers Coup: The Making of the United States Constitution. Oxford

University Press, 2016.

Smith, Mark E. Elections Kill Revolutions. Dissent Not Consent.

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