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Reflection On INTERCULTURAL CONFLICT Structure: Your reflection should have a title. It should introduce and briefly explain one or two concepts fr

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Your reflection should have a title.

It should introduce and briefly explain one or two concepts from the chapter (e.g. ethnocentrism; high context; cultural shock) not more than half of a page. After you introduce the concept, you analyze if it looking into how you may have seen it in your life and how providing concrete examples from your life or that of other people you know (e.g. gender roles, as I was growing up I was taught that). If you disagree with the concept (e.g. the chapter says that Greek culture is high context in general and you disagree) you may provide arguments why you disagree. Again, if you felt that you need to discuss more than one concept, you may discuss two but not more than two. Chapter attached

Chapter10 [] IntercutturatConfhct 337

1. Define intelcultural conflict .

2. Define facework and identify three plimary facewo& strategies

3. List and define the five primaly and three secondary styles of conflict communication

4. Identify and discuss the conflict styles preferred by individuahstic and collectivistic cultures

5. Idenufy and discuss the conflict styles preferred by high- versus low-context cultures

6. Explain and apply the components of the contingency model of cross-cultural conflict

Imagine yourself m the following situation:


Mahatma Gandhi

Honest disagreement Js often a good sign of progress.

Aklra Abe is an internauonal exchange student from Japan who lives down the hall
from you m your dorm. You have interacted with Aklra only occasionally and do
not know him very well. This morning, Akira approached you to compiam that you
frequently play your music so loudly that he Is unable to study or sleep. Aklra then
asked if you would please stop playing your music so loudly.

What would you do m this situation? How would you resolve this conflict? Would you
comply with Akira’s request? Would you argue with Akira?

Conflict, such as the one depicted above, is an inevitable part of living in a society with
others. All types of human relationships–from strangers to acquaintances to intimates–
experience conflict. Communication plays a paradoxical role in most conflicts because
communicauon is required both to instigate conflict and to resolve it. Unfortunately, conflict
is the source of much relational stress and dissolution; fortunately, the successful resolution
of conflict is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of relational sausfaction.
Hence, an understanding of conflict and how to resolve it is an essential part of becoming a
competent communicator, especially in your relationships with persons from other cultures.

In the past 30 years, a growing body of theory and iesearch has emerged m the intercultural
communication literature regarding the nature of intercultural conflict Much of this
research Is based on the work of Stella Tmg-Toomey and John Oetzel) They define
intercultural conflict as

the implicit ot exphcit emotional struggle between persons of different cultural
commumties over perceived ol actual incompatibility of cultural ideologies and
values, situational norms, goals, face-orientations, scarce resources, styles/processes,


conftlct The fmpLiclt

or explicit emotional

struggle between
persons of different
cultures over

perceived or actual

incompatibility of
cultural Ideologies
and values, sltuatmnal.

norms, goals, face
onentatmns, scarce

resources, styles/

processes, and/or
outcomes In a face-

to-face context

338 Chapter 10 m IntercuLtural.ConflictIntercultural. Communication

and/or outcomes in a face-to-face (oi mediated) context within a soclohistorical
embedded system.2

Well-known lntercultmal communication scholai Young Yun Kun has developed a model of
lntmcuhural conflict. Klm argues that lntelcultulal conflmt occuis at thiee interdependent
and interrelated levels, mctudmg a mlclo oi individual level, an lnteime&aiy level; and a
macro or societal level (see Figure 10.1).4

The miclo, ot zndividual, level of mteicultural conflmt refels to the unique attitudes,
dispositions, and beliefs that each individual bnngs to the conflmt. According to Kim’s
model, cognitive simpllcity/rlgl&ty refels to the degiee of mflexlbihty in the way
individuals think about people fiom dlffelent cultules. Rigid, simphstic thinking includes
gloss categmizanon and stereotyping (e.g., all Ameiicans ale rude, all Japanese are qmet).
In-group bins lefers to the degree to which the individual is ethnocenuic

Recall from Chapter 1 that ethnocenmsm is defined as viewing one’s own group as
being at the centei of evewthmg and using the standards of one’s own gloup to measure
or gauge the woith of all other gioups. Insecuiity/fiustranon lefers to the degree to which
the mdwidual has a high level of uncertainty about, and feat of, out-group members
(e.g., they will steal our jobs) Divergent behavmr lefeis to the behavloial pattems of the
individual that clearly dljerentlate and distance him oi her from out-group membeis For
example, obviously &ffeient speech patterns or accents may ostensibly sepaiate groups from
one anothei Duimg conflmt, people will often exaggerate their mannmisms and speech
to accentuate then differences compared with out-gioups Because you ate upset about

Kim’s Model of IntercuLturaL ConfLict

Macro Level

History of subjugation
, Ideological or structural mequahties
= Minority group strength

Intermediary Level

* Segregation/contact
, Intergroup salience
, Status discrepancy

Micro Level

Cognitive simphclty/rlgtdlty
In-group bias

= Insecunty/frustratton
Dwergent behaviors

SOURCE Based on Kim, Y Y [1989] Interethnm Confl.Jct An InterdlscJphnary Overwew In J B Gttier {Ed 1,
Annual Review of Conflict Knowledge and Conflict Resolution {Vot 1] New York GarLand, KLm, Y Y (19901
Explaining Interethmc Conflict An Interdisciplinary Overwew Paper presented at the annual convention of the
Speech Comrnunlcatlon Assoctahon Chicago, IL

Micro Level

Akira’s complaint, you may intentionally turn up the volume on youi music. Imagine two
employees worldng together, each fiom a different cultme, who have gross stereotypes of
each other, are both ethnocentric, fear each other, and have highly divergent behavioral
patterns Kim’s model predicts that such a situation is likely to engender conflict.5

The mtermedmry level of intercultural conflict refers to the actual location and context
of the conflict. Some envuonments (e.g., neighborhoods, school, work) may be more likely
than others to facilitate conflmt. Segregation and contact refer to the extent to whmh the
individuals’ cultmal groups interact on a daily basis. Perhaps the most basic condition for
intercultural conflict is contact between diverse cultures or ethnicitles on a day-to-day basis.
Segregated wotkplaces or schools do not allow for much interaction, and components at the
individual level (e.g, cognitive rigidity, m-group bias) tend to escalate to intolerable levels
that facilitate intercultural conflmt. Intergroup salience refels to the observable physical
and social differences between the confllcung mdwiduals. Such cultural markets include
distinct physical and behavioral differences, such as race, language, and speech patterns.

As Kim notes, to the extent that the groups are cukurally distinct, the communicative skills
of the less powerful cultural group will clash with those of the majority gioup members. The
majority group’s symbol system is dominant. Status &screpancy refers to the degree to which
conflicting parties differ in status along cukural lines. For example, African Americans often
argue that U.S. culture practices an asymmetrical power snucture They may feel that the
U S. corporate culture reflects the same asymmetry. On the job, managels and supervisors
have more powei than workers. If all the managers in a business are of one race or ethnicity
and all the workers are of another, then the status discrepancy is helghtened.6

Recall from Chapter 1 that a fundamental assumption of mteicultulal communication
is that it Js a group phenomenon experienced by m&viduals. Likewise, duimg intercultural
conflict, one’s group membership (l.e, culture) becomes a factor in how conflmt is perceived,
managed, and resolved Some of these cultmal factms may be unconscious, such as one’s
degree ofmdwiduahsm or c ollecnvism. Other factors are probably very conscious. Recall your
conflict with Akira. The two of you are flora different cultural communities, have mcompanble
goals, and desue d,fferent outcomes. You choose to play your music loudly. Akna piefets that
you not play your musm loudly Flora a socmhistorical perspecnve, you may wondei if all
Japanese ate quiet and dishke loud music. Perhaps Akira quest,ons If all Americans ale l ude
and insensmve to the wishes of otheis. Although the conflict between you and Akna could
Just as easily have occuued between two U.S. students oi two Japanese students, the fact that
it happened between a U.S student and a Japanese student comphcates the issue.

Ting-Toomey and Oetzel maintain that intercultural conflict involves a ceitam degree
of ethnocentiic percepuon and judgment. Recall from Chaptei 1 and Chapter 5 that
ethnocenmc pmsons hold attitudes and behaviors about their in-group that ate bmsed
m favor of the m-group, often at the expense of out-groups Ethnocentric persons fostei
cooperative ldatlons with m-group members while competing with, and peihaps even
battling, out-group members 3 Hence, by virtue of our cultural upbringing, we think we
ate correct (i.e., loud musm is great vs. loud music is disrespectful). To explain intercultural
conflict further, three models will be presented next’ Young Kim’s Model of Intercultuial
Conflict, Tmg-Toomey and Oetze!’s Culture-Based Social Ecological Conflict Model, and
BenJamin Bloome’s Model of Building a Culture of Peace ltrough Dialogue.


340 IntercuLtural. Comrnunlcatlon Chapter10 m Intercu[turatConfhct 34,,

Photo 10.1 Segregated
drinking fountain in use
in the American South

ne macro, or socmtal, level of intercultural
conflict includes factors that are probably out
of the lnteractants’ control. nese conditions
include any histoly of subjugation, ideological/
snuctural inequality, and minority group
strength. The history of subjugation of one
group by anothel is a key environmental factor
in maW intercultural conflicts. For example,
African Americans have long been subjugated
by Whites in the United States. Historically,
Aflican Americans were slaves. Even after
emancipation, they were not allowed to vote.
As late as the 1960s, restaurants in the South’

A CuRure-Based Social EcoLogicaL ConfLict Modet
In a model of conflict that complements the Klm model discussed above, Ting-Toomey
and Oetzel have developed what they call a cultme-based social ecological conflict model.8
You will see some similarities between this model and the Kim model. In their model,
Tmg-Toomey and Oetzel highlight four main factors that come into play during an
intercultmal conflict episode: primary orientation factors, situational appraisals, conflict
processes, and conflict competence. During intercultural conflict, these four factors come
together interdependently in a complex formula that defines the specific conflict episode

(see Figure 10.2).
The piimary orientauon factors are what each individual brings to the conflict. This

would be similar to Klm’s micro level, but with some added variables. Tmg-Toomey and
Oetzel suggest that each individual brings macro, exo, meso, and micro layers to the

enforced sepaiate bathrooms, seating aieas, and drinking fountains for Afiican Americans

and Whites (see Photo 10.1).
Often, the tensions expiessed today are rooted in the history of one group’s subjugation

of another group. Ideological and structural inequity refers to societal diffelences regarding
powel, piestige, and economic reward. Historically, in the United States, Whites have
held most of the power positions and gained most of the economm reward. Hence, there
is a vast ideological and structural &fference between Whites and othei groups. Minority
(i.e., miciocuttural) group strength refers to the amount of power (e.g., legal, pohtical,
economic) a particular group possesses. Microculturat groups vary in their ability to
tally their members against structural inequahtms. Minority group strength varies as a
function of the status of the group’s language within the society, the sheer number of
members in the group, and forms of societal support (e.g., governmental services designed
specifically for that group). Relative to other microcultural groups, African Americans,
for example, ale economically and politically quite powerful. Pohucal scientists argue,
for instance, that presidential elections are swung by the African Amelican voting
bloc. According to Kim, the greater the ethnic group’s strength, the more likely that
an individual in that group will take actmn in lntelcultural conflict situations.7 Taken
together, these three levels of conflmt merge during any intercultural conflict. To the
extent that these individual, intermediary, and societal factors are present, intercultural

conflict will likely ignite.










Mike Fabmn Is the wce president of Acme Marketing Fwm, a company his father founded o
Acme s a direct marketing firm for msurapce agencies Mike s 58 years ol,d and White

He was born and rinsed In Kenfl.worth, II,l,mols, a weal,thy Chicago suburb Mke has six
directors under him in Acme’s organlzatmnat hierarchy These six directors each man- .

age and supervise about seven empl,oyees Thus, Mike superwses about 50 employees :
Once a year, Mke has one-on-one meetings with each employee These meetings are a
part of each empl,oyee’s annual, evaluation Today, Mke is meeting wth Nicote Newton

Ncol,e Js a new employee and has worked for Acme for just over a year She was hred
soon after graduating from co[I.ege with a bachel,or’s degree In commumcatlon Ths wl,[
be her first eval,uatmn meeting She was hwed as a tel.emarketer and hopes to move up o
mtheorgamzahonsoon SheisAfricanAmer/canand23yearsol,d Shewasralsedlnthe
city of Chicago, m a pubbe-houslng dstrmt Thew meeting takes pl.ace in Mke’s office
She and Mke have never met

Mike Good morning, Nicol,e Come m and have a seat

Nlcole HI, Mike

Mike Actual,l,y, unhl, I get to know my employees, I prefer to be catl,ed
Mr Fabmn

Ncole Oh, OK, Mr Fabian [pLacing emphass on “Mr”}

Mike [Noticing her tone of vmce } So where are you from?

Ntcole I grew up on the South Side

Mike [Thinks to hlmsel,f, “She and I have nothing m common”} I’m from







Yeah, I’ve heard of that

So do you have any education beyond high school,9

Yes As my rsum4 indicates, I have a bachelor’s degree That shoul,d be m
my fil,e

Oh, yes, here it is It says here you have a degree In commumcabon2 What’s
that al,l, about9 Cl,asses In speech, I guess, or radio and tel,evlsmn?

WeLl., no I took classes In orgamzahonat communication, pohhcal, com-
mumcatmn, IntercuLtural. commumcahon courses l.lke that We dscuss

and explore how humans interact wthln a variety of contexts It’s a great

WelJ., there was no such major when I went to school I don’t understand Why
not major m business? Anyway I’ve been reading your manager’s monthl,y
assessments of your performance I can see you need Improvement {n several.

areas, mcl,udlng customer serwce and attitude


342 IntercuLtural. Commumcatlon Chapter 10 [] IntercutturatConfhct 343



Severat of the factors outhned In the KIm mode[ can be appljed to this brief confbct
exchange between Mike and NIco[e In terms of the micro flndwldua[} revel, Mike’s cog-
mhve rigidity and slmphclty are reflected m his mftexlbte stance about Nicote’s infor-
mahty, which doesn’t seem to be an Issue with her customers since none of them has

comptamed, and his tack of knowtedge about commumcahon degrees Regardmgthe
intermediary [eve[, that Mike prefers for Nicote to cal.[ him “Mr Fablon” hlghhghts the
status discrepancy between them That Mike meets with his emptoyees onty once a year
shows that he has httte contact with {I e, is segregated from} them Moreover, persons
m Kenltworth may rarel.y interact with persons m the Inner city Fmal.ty, at a macro {so-
oeta[} [eve[, there is a hstory of subjugatton between their groups, and Nlco[e’s group
has demonstrabl.e minority group strength

conflict–with macto meaning “larger than,” exo meaning “external or outside,” meso

meaning “middle or intermediate,” and mzcto meaning “locahzed or small.”
Similar to Klm’s model, the macro-level primary orientation factors are the larger

sociocuhural factors, histories, worldvlews, beliefs, and values held by each individual.
Macro-level variables may be outside the individual’s control but nevertheless affect
his or hel approach to conflict Some macro-level variables might include the effects of
globahzauon (i.e., the compression of cultural boundaries) on an individual. Exo factols
include the formal instituuons present in..anycultq.eLnc[udmg religious isttutigns,
governments, and health care systems, among others that are externaFto the individual
but affect his or her approach7 Mes0qevel factors refer to the mole Immediate dimensions

Real.[y9 I thought I was doing fine

Weft, your manager says you are informal, wRh customers 1 think that
reaves a bad Impression {Thinks to himself, “1 guess that’s not taught In
commumcatlon classes “}

Really9 I think they hke It I think it’s at[ right to be a httl.e retaxed once m a

Weft., maybe el.sewhere, but not here

Have any of my customers compl.amed9

Not directly, no

So then, what’s the problem9 (Thinks to hersel.f, “What’s his probtem9 He
thinks he’s pretty specIat He needs a cl.ass In commumcatlon “}

Look, Nicol.e, I’m not going to argue with you I’m te[hng you to Improve your
attitude and stop being so reformat with the customers

Whatever you say, Mr Fablon









Madro Globahzatlon, hstery of unresolved conflEct
Exo Technology
Meso Relational parameters, m-group/out-group
Micro Conflict goal assessments and Intensity

Person A

Mlcroconfllct Processes

EmotEonal Expressions

Conflmt Styles

Facework Sehawors

Conflict Rhythms

Conflict Comeetence


Principled et[]cs cultural relatlvsm/unIversahsm,
moral ncluston/excluslon, social justice

Person B

of a particular culture–for example, the local church group, one’s workplace setting, or
even one s extended family. Finally, the micro-leve[factors include the mdwNual s unique
intraiersona[attdButesl such as his or her level of mdivlduahsm or collectivism, actual
physical location, and personal experiences, among others? FoI example, Ting-Toomey and
Oetzel point out that individualists tend to address conflict through assertiveness, express
their emotions, and value personal accountability. Collecuvists restrain their emotions and
protect the in-group.

While primary orientation factors are the principal influences on conflict, they affect
how each individual percewes (appraises) the situation in which the conflict takes place.
Macro, exo, meso, and mlcio levels appear here as well. Macro situational features might
include the effects of globalizauon on this particular situation, such as Immigration.
Oftentimes, immigrant groups are faced with conflict from the native cultural groups.
But, of course, not all conflicts are about immlgrauon. Exo-level variables might include
whether the intelactants are m-group or out-group members. We tend to use different
communication strategies when interacting with the in-group compared with the out-
group. Meso-level variables focus on relauonal dimensions in this particular conflict and

344 Intercul.tura[ Communmahon Chapter10 m Intercul.tura[Confhct 345

might include one’s status in the family or orgamzauon Finally, mlclo-level situational
features might include the individual’s goal in a given situation (e.g., to ask foi a pay raise).1

The micio conflict processes include those facto*s that emerge from the conflict
lntelaction itself. Foi example, duung conflict, the two individuals’ conflict interacuon
styles come into play interdependently. So how does Individual A’s competitive style
combine with Individual B’s avoidance style? Finally, how do the individuals manage their

emotlons Are they expressive oi restrained
Last, the model includes conflict competence criteria and outcomes, which include

effectiveness/appropriateness, productivity/satlsfacuon, and punclpled ethics. Conflict
competence refers to the application of lnteicultulal conflict knowledge. In other
words, how are we to use what we know about conflict to act competently and produce
an effective, appropriate resolution Appiopriateness lefes to the degree to which
the individuals’ behaviols are suitable foi the cultural context m which they occui
Effectiveness refers to the degree to which the individuals achieve mutually shared
meaning, which leads to intercultural undeistandmg. Poductivity/satisfaction refels to
the degiee to which the individuals are able to cieate the desiled images of themselves, to
what extent those images are accepted by the opposing party, and the perception by both
parties that a successful resolution has been leached. Tmg-Toomey and Oetzel efe to
productive resolution as a “win-win” conflict ouentation and to unpioductive lesolutlon
as a “win-lose” conflict oiientation A compauson of the two orientations is presented
in Table 10 1 ”

We can apply the Culture-Based Social Ecological Model to the ealhei interaction
between Mike Fabion and Nicole Newton, as we did the Klm model Regaidmg their
prunaiy oiientation factors, Mike and Nicole have veW different maclo-level oiientauons
Race plays a key role heie, as Nicole’s cultmal loots are in subjugation and slavery Their
exo-level factors are also key. M,ke and Nicole ale plobably not membeis of the same social
institutions. Mike is unfamiliar with Nlcole’s education in communication. They differ in
age, and their political affiliations ale likely to be different as well. The meso-level factors
are particularly ielevant here because, within the workplace, Mike carries much higher
status than Nicole. Interestingly, their micro-level factors may not differ considerably, as

Respecting cuttura[ differences

Sensitivity to conflict context

Uncovering deeper conflict needs

Compromising mode

Practicing mmdfut eonfhct skirts

Wlthngness to change

50URCE Oetzel., J G, Tmg-Toomey, S, Masumoto, T, YokochJ, Y, & Takal, J 120001 A Typotogy of Facework
Behaviors in Conftlcts With Best Friends and Retatlve Strangers Communication Ouarterly, 48, 397-419

Ignoring cuttura[ differences

Insensitivity to confhct context

Arguing and defending serf-interest

Conflict mode

Engaging in mindtess behaviors

Rigidity of eonfhct posture

So how might Mike and Nlcole resolve their conflict? Like the other scholars cited in this
chapter, Benjamin Broome maintains that conflict is an unavoidable consequence of living
in a culturally diverse world. But Broome also believes that among myriad cultural groups,
peace is possible He argues that successful intercultural conflict resolution requires that
conflicting lnteractants engage in dialogue and promote a culture ofpeace.12 Broome asserts
the following:

To build and maintain peace, we must learn productive ways to handle disagreements,
and we must develop norms, mechanisms, and institutions that will guide us toward
resolving divisive issues without violence. A central means thlough which such
actions can unfold is dmlogue.3

Broome traces the etymology (i.e., the origins) of the word dmlogue to ancient Greece,
where dia means “through or across” and logos means “wolds or reason.” Btoome contends
that via dialogue, conflicting parties can reason with each othei using communication as
the vehicle toward understanding and eventual conflict resolution. Via dialogue, Broome
asserts, conflicting parties become aware of how they each lnterplet and prescribe meaning
to the immediate context. Broome is careful to point out that dialogue does not rule out
disagreement. Instead, via dialogue, conflicting parties begin to understand each other’s
unique perspective on the issue confronting them, which can then lead to peace. Broome’s
model is presented in Figure 10.3.4

Accolding to this model, as conflicting individuals engage in dialogue, a number of
processes can lesult and lead to the possibility of a culture of peace. First, dialogue makes
possible sustained contact. Just as in the Kim model and Tmg-Toomey and Oetzels’s
model, Broome maintains that conflict is often ongoing because conflicting parties are
segregated or have little contact with each other. To engage in dialogue, conflicting patties
must come togethei and inteiact. Without interaction, it is impossible to understand the
othei’s position. And while Bioome admits that sustained contact does not guaiantee a
resolution, without contact, resolution is unfeasible. Such contact, Broome asserts, can help
the conflicting parties reduce uncertainty and become aware of each othei’s perspectives,
which helps reduce hostility. By segregating themselves, the conflicting parties make any
kind of empathy between groups impossible. But via dialogue, at least understanding the
other’s point of view becomes possible, which can then lead to a reduction of hostility. As

both wele raised in the United States and probably calry an individualistic orientation.
They likely appraise the conflict situation differently. At the macro level, the issue of lace
is unresolved, especially in Chicago. At the meso level, Mike’s hieraichical status in this
organization places him at a distinctadvantage. In this scenario, Nlcole’s goal is to receive a
positive evaluation, while Mike’s goal is to point out what he sees as a problem (i.e., Nlcole’s
informality). Ironically, Nicole is conect in thinking that Mike needs a course (or two) in

346 IntercuLtural Communication
Chapter 10 [] IntercutturalConfllct 347

My name is Corle Stlng[, and I had the privilege
to attend St Norbert CoLLege from 2012 to 2016
I graduated with a bachelor of arts In commu-
nication and received a Spanish Language cer-

tificate One of my favorite classes in my time
In school was IntercuLturaL Communications
WhiLe in this class, I Learned so much about
myself and how I interact with others in this

WhiLe at St Norbert CoLLege, I served as a
mentor for International students as a Bridges
International mentor We met weekly with
international students and tried to serve as a
resource for them to practice speaking EngLish
and Learn about American culture Through
ths experience, I met Haruka Asarl, a student
from Japan Over the year that she was at our

Corie Stlngt

As a result of this, I Learned a few tips about
avoiding conflict during intercuLturaL inter-
actions The first is to practice honesty and
ask permission I would say things Like, “Hey,
Haruka, I would Love to Learn about Japanese
culture Is it OK If l ask you a few questlonsg”
or “Can you teLL me something I don’t know
about your cul.ture'” Practicing asking per-

mission aL[owed for both of us to become
more comfortable with Learning from and
with each other

The second thing I Learned is to Listen genu-
inely and try your best to remember significant
pieces of information that are shared with you
When you are able to recall information that
was shared with you In a situation Like this, it
makes the other person feel respected and vaL-
ued I believe that creating this kind of environ-
ment is what made my friendship with Haruka
so strong

From Haruka, I was able to [earn so much about
Japanese culture, such as what not to do with
chopsticks, some commonly used Japanese
phrases, and some historical facts about the
country HopefuLLy, I can put the things she
taught me to use, as I hope to visit her In Tokyo
in a fewyears I am so gratefuL for my friendship
with Haruka and for the things she taught and
continues to teach meI

campus, our friendship grew immensely We
both Longed to Learn about each other’s cuL-
tures, but wanted to make sure we did it in a
way that was respectful and sensitive of the
other person


Sustained Reduced Respect for Narrative of at,nn-
contact hostility the other peace Cooper

Contributes to Contributes to Contributes to Contr/butes to


SOURCE This discussion of the model is based entirely on Broome, B J [2013} Building Cultures of Peace
The Rote of Intergroup DiaLogue In J G Oetze[ & S TIng-Toomey IEds ), The SAGE Handbook of Conflict
Commumcahon Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice (pp 3737-37611 Thousand Oaks, CA SAGE

conflicting parties engage in interaction and begin to reduce hostility, they can begin to
develop respect for each other. Broome maintains that as members of each group begin to
listen to each oter and to understand each other’s viewpoints, they will develop a degree
of regard and respect for each other. Once again, Broome acknowledges that this does
not necessitate agreement but at least can initiate the process of peaceful discussion rather
than hostile confrontation. As peaceful discussion continues, interactants are moe likely
to engage in cooperative rather than competitive and hostile acuon, l]lis, then, can lead to
a culture of peace.5

Broome is caleful to point out that building a culture of peace is a lengthy and
difficult process. He understands that unequal social and economic conditmns,
beyond either party’s control, may prevent conflicting pal ties from engaging m willful
dialogue. He asserts that each party must be a walling participant. Moreover, current
societal, national, or international events outside the control of either party may
impede progress as well.16

So what Mike Fabion and Nlcole Newton might try is to engage in more frequent
interacuon and get to know each other (i.e., reduce uncertainty–remembei Chapters 1
and 9?). They may find that they have more m common than they thought (remember the
model of relational empathy and third-culture building in Chapter 9?). Foi example, they
both work for the same company, and each wants the company to succeed. As they begin to

3/48 Intercultural Communication Chapter 10 e IntercutturatConfllct 349

face A person’s

sense of favorable
self-worth or self-

image experienced
during communicative
situations Face IS an
emotional extension

of the self-concept
It is considered a ,

universal concept

serf-face The

concern for one’s

own image during

especially confUct

ether-face Concern

for another s

Image during

especially conflict


Concern for both

parties images or
the image of the
relationship during

especlatLy conflict



strategies employed
to manage one s own

face or to support or
challenge another s
racer self-face


behaviors characterized

by an individual s need
to centrotthe situation

and defend his or her


avoiding lacework

behaviors that focus on

an attempt to save the
face of the other person

during communlcaUon
or conflict

integrating lacework

behaviors that allow

for the shared concern
for self- and other-face

and strive for closure
during communication

or confttct

educe uncertainty and discover their commonahues–at least in their shared desire for the
good of the orgamzauon–they may begin to respect each other, engage in more peaceful

interaction, and eventually cooperate.

In most conflict stuauons, interactants are required to defend or save their faces when
they are threatened or attacked. The various ways one might deal with conflict and face are
collectively called lacework Specifically, lacework refers to the communicative strategies
employed to manage one’s own face or to support or challenge another’s face Facework can
be employed to imuate, manage, or terminate conflict)90etzel and his colleagues classify
three general types of facework strategies used m intercultural conflict: dominating,
avoiding, and integrating lacework (see Table 10.2). Dominating


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