Some Specific Points in Writing a Research Paper
- In-Text Citation in MLA Style
A typical in-text citation contains two elements.
- The last name of the author
- The page number of the quoted or paraphrased passage.
However, in some cases a work is identified by something other than an author’s last name, and sometimes no page number is required.
Typically, an in-text citation uses one of these two methods:
- Parenthetical method. Place the author’s last name and the page number in parenthesis immediately after the materials being cited.
For example: The Spanish tried to reduce the status of Filipina women who had been able to do business, get divorced, and sometimes become village chiefs (Karnow 41).
- Attributive tag method. Place the author’s name in an attributivetag at the beginning of the source materials and the page number in parentheses at the end.
For example: According to Karnow, the Spanish tried to reduce the status of Filipina women, who had been able to business, get divorced, and sometimes become village chiefs (41). Once you have cited an author and it is clear the same author’s materials are being used, you need cite only the page numbers in parentheses in subsequent
Some Specific Points for Writing an Argumentative/Persuasive Essay
- Persuade through appeals to logos, ethos, and pathos.
Logos is the appeal to reason. It refers to the quality of the message itself—to its internal consistency, to its clarity in asserting a thesis or point, and to the quality of reasons and evidence used to support the point.
Ethos is the appeal to the character of the speaker/writer. It refers to the speaker/writer’s trustworthiness and credibility. One can often increase one’s ethos in a message by being knowledgeable about the issue, by appearing thoughtful and fair, by listening well, and by being respectful of alternative points of view. A writer’s accuracy and thoroughness in crediting sources and professionalism in caring about the format, grammar, and neat appearance of a document are part of the appeal to ethos.
Pathos is the appeal to the sympathies, values, beliefs, and emotions of the audience. Appeals to pathos ca be made in many ways. Pathos can often be enhanced through evocative visual images, frequently used in Wed sites, posters, and magazine or newspaper articles. In written tets, the same effects can be created through vivid examples and details, through connotative language, and through empathy with the audience’s beliefs and values.
- Follow the 18th/19th century German philosopher George Hegel’s dialectical thinking process, “For every thesis, there is an antithesis.”