Short Answer Section
All questions must be answered in compete sentences .
Please proof-read points will be deducted for submission with typos and grammatical errors.
1. Please explain the difference between WEATHER and CLIMATE, as well as CLIMATE CHANGE and CLIMATE VARIABILITY. A complete answer will include:
A. A clear definition of each term
B. Their relative timescale
C. An example of each
2. The energy budget of Earth is a balance between incoming radiation and outgoing radiation. This energy balance can be influenced by climate forcings. Global warming has been a result of a specific longwave forcing. Please describe the earth’s energy budget and the specific longwave forcing that has resulted in global warming. A complete answer will include:
A. The sources and type of incoming and outgoing radiation in the Earth’s energy budget.
B. A definition of climate forcing and longwave forcing
C. Identify and clearly describe the longwave forcing responsible for global warming
3. The global carbon cycle is a complex series of interactions through which carbon passes through the Earth’s climate system. Please describe how carbon moves between the atmosphere and two different carbon reservoirs. Between the two processes that you describe which is faster? A complete answer will include the following components:
a. Identify the reservoirs (e.g., I will describing a process between… the atmosphere and the land, atmosphere and the lithosphere) and define each carbon reservoir (e.g., what is the size of the inventory).
b. Identify and explain the process that moves carbon between the atmosphere and the reservoir of your choice (x2).
c. Describe the timescale of each process. Be sure to clearly state which process moves carbon faster (i.e., which has the shorter residence time?).
4. Climate feedback loops are a very important source of natural variability in the climate system. Clearly define what a climate feedback loop is. Provide an example of a positive feedback loop and a negative feedback loop and describe the steps in each feedback loop.
Figure 1. Atmospheric CO2 concentration 1960-2020 Figure 2. Atmospheric CO2 concentration last 800,000 yrs
5. Atmospheric carbon dioxide on Earth has been rapidly changing during the 20th and 21st century (Figure 1) but it has also changed over the last eight hundred thousand years
(Figure 2). Please describe and explain the trends in carbon dioxide concentration from Figure 1 and Figure 2. Complete responses will include:
a. What is each figure showing? What is the source of the data (i.e., what type of measurement and from where)?
b. What if any is the long-term trend in the data (e.g., increasing, decreasing, no trend)? Is it changing fast or slow? Do we know the cause of the trend?
c. What is the timescale and cause of the up and down cycles (or wiggles) in the data?
6. The ocean is being impacted by increases in the average global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations of earth. These impacts have resulted in increasing ocean heat content, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. In your own words, please describe one of these phenomena and why it is relevant to society. A complete answer will include:
a. Clearly define which phenomenon you are describing. If known, what is the cause of the phenomenon?
b. How do we know it is occurring (i.e., evidence, how is it measured) and at what rate and/or frequency is it occuring?
c. Who or what is affected by the phenomenon?
d. Why is this relevant to human society?
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Global Climate Change
Short Answer Section
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