All our Essay orders are Original, and are written from scratch. Try us today at 30% off

Foreign Languages Worksheet

Want answers to the assignment Below?

Text or Whatsapp Olivia at +1 (307) 209-4351


 

68 Meaning in Language 3.2.4 Dynamic construal Underlying most work on conceptual categories there has been an implicit assump- tion that mature, normal human beings possess an inventory of discrete and more or less stable categories with permanent mental representations, which are activated in appropriate circumstances. (Of course, new concepts can be learned, but these will have the same stable character as those already in the inventory.) The goal of conceptual studies, it is assumed, is to elucidate the nature of these mental entities, Conceptually oriented studies of word meaning typically assume that a word is associated with a specific concept (or, in the case of ambiguity, with a specific set of such concepts). However, the notion of fixed categories has not gone unchal- lenged. For instance, experiments by Barsalou, a cognitive psychologist, have shown that people are capable of forming ad hoc categories with no conventional names, such as THINGS TO TAKE ON A PICNIC, THINGS ON A DESK THAT COULD BE USED TO POUND IN A NAIL, SUITABLE BIRTHDAY PRESENTS FOR A TEN-YEAR-OLD, and so on. These categories showed the same characteristics as established categories, with graded centrality and characteristic features. These and similar results suggest that categories are generated online as and when required. However, all is not flux and chaos–that would be fatal for communication. The suggestion is that previous experience has a permanent effect on our tendency to construe concepts in particular ways. The psychologists Smith and Samuelson have this to say: Critically, the accrual of these long-term changes provides a source of stability in a continually changing system. If there are statistical regularities, patterns, in our experi- ences that recur over and over again, then as each moment of knowing is laid on the preceding moments, weak tendencies to behave and to think in certain ways will become strong tendencies sometimes so strong that they will not be easily perturbed and thus might seem fixed. (Smith and Samuelson 1997: 175-6) In other words, concepts may have any degree of fixedness/fluidity. The conse- quences of this view for word meaning will be taken up in Chapter 5. Discussion questions and exercises 1. Prototype features Suggest a set of prototype features for one or more of the following conceptual categories (or select your own example(s)): CLOTHES FRUIT MUSICAL INSTRUMENT HOBBY BUILDING HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE For each category, draw up a list of possible members, including some marginal cases, and ask another person to assign Goe ratings. Consider to what extent the ratings can be accounted for in terms of your suggested features. Concepts and meaning 69 2. Category levels Assign the following categories to superordinate, basic, or subordinate level: BIRO TEASPOON SANDAL UNDERWEAR SEAGULL DAISY GRASS BULLDOZER BUS MOUNTAIN BIKE SELF-RAISING FLOUR WALNUT SUGAR ARMCHAIR DELICATESSEN SUPERMARKET PETROL STATION TOWN HALL PARK MOTORWAY ROAD CANAL POLICE STATION BUILDING GROCERIES WINE CHAMPAGNE BEVERAGE MILK Suggestions for further reading That meaning is essentially conceptual in nature is one of the central tenets of cognitive linguistics. For elementary introductions to cognitive linguistics see Ungerer and Schmid (1996). Ultimately, a reader interested in this approach will eventually want to tackle the foundational texts. The ‘bible’ of the cognitive approach is Langacker’s two volume Foundations of Cognitive Grammar (1987 and 1991a). However, this is not an easy read; fortunately, many of the basic topics are expounded in a much more accessible form in Langacker (1991b). The inter- ested reader will also find articles on a wide range of cognitive linguistic topics in the journal Cognitive Linguistics. See Millikan (2000) for a thorough discussion of the notion of kinds’. An alternative conceptual approach to meaning can be found in the works of Jackendoff; Jackendoff (1983) provides a good introduction. An interesting com- parison between Jackendoff’s approach and the cognitive linguistic approach (including a contribution from Jackendoff himself) can be found in Volume 7.1 of Cognitive Linguistics, which also gives a fairly full bibliography of Jackend- off’s later work. Cruse (1990) provides an introduction to prototype theory as applied to lexical semantics. (The volume which includes this article also contains many other articles on the topic.) A fuller account is to be found in Taylor (1989); Cruse (1992C) is a critical review of this. Ungerer and Schmid (1996) has an interesting chapter on categorization. For a more psychological view of the prototype approach to meaning, see the articles in Schwanenflugel (1994), especially those by Hampton and Murphy. Cruse (1995) attempts to apply prototype theory to lexical relations.
The post Foreign Languages Worksheet first appeared on Assignment writing service.

Testimonials

No Complaints So far Guys

Yeah …I really like all the discounts that they offer, the prices are very flexible. Plus they have different promotions...

Comes through every time

I have used this website for many times, and each time they found perfect writers for me and they produce...

Mh! not bad…

The worst part ever was to find my deadline postponed for 1 hour ! They couldn`t finish the essay within...

Great Job

Great job! Those were you, guys, who made my coursework perfect in time according to all my requirements. I will...

Best Service

The book review I asked for is so amazing! Endless thanks to your team for completing my review and for...

Best

They look cool and trustworthy enough to me. I gather they made discounts as their prices are quite affordable if...

CLICK HERE  To order your paper

About Scholarfront Essay writing service

We are a professional paper writing website. If you have searched a question and bumped into our website just know you are in the right place to get help in your coursework. We offer HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE Papers.

How It Works

To make an Order you only need to click on “Order Now” and we will direct you to our Order Page. Fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

Are there Discounts?

All new clients are eligible for upto 20% off in their first Order. Our payment method is safe and secure.

 CLICK HERE to Order Your Assignment

 

ORDER WITH 15% DISCOUNT

Let your paper be done by an expert

Custom Essay Writing Service

Our custom essay writing service has already gained a positive reputation in this business field. Understandably so, all custom papers produced by our academic writers are individually crafted from scratch and written according to all your instructions and requirements. We offer Havard, APA, MLA, or Chicago style papers in more than 70 disciplines. With our writing service, you can get quality custom essays, as well as a dissertation, a research paper, or term papers for an affordable price. Any paper will be written on time for a cheap price.

Professional Essay writing service

When professional help in completing any kind of homework is all you need, scholarfront.com is the right place to get it. We guarantee you help in all kinds of academia, including essay, coursework, research, or term paper help etc., it is no problem for us. With our cheap essay writing service, you can be sure to get credible academic aid for a reasonable price, as the name of our website suggests. For years, we have been providing online custom writing assistance to students from countries all over the world, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, Italy, New Zealand, China, and Japan.