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Elementary Statistics

The purpose of this paper is to have you find actual applications and/or personal analysis of statistics found outside the classroom.
It should be your own statistical analysis of a personal interest. You will collect your own data. Think about a topic that you are
interested in, then you will enjoy the project more.
Examples of possible topics can include: (Collecting your own data is recommended – use survey monkey or ask people questions in person.
You may gather data from the internet, but not results.)
 Who works more hours – students who commute to college, or students who do not?
 Who is more satisfied with their employment – women or men? Or people over 40 compared to people under 40?
 Who consumes more caffeine first thing in the morning – men or women?
 Do people prefer to watch 3D movies or regular movies?
 Compare sales of an item at work from one month/year to another
 Compare batting averages (or some other statistic) between/among teams, positions or leagues
 Compare QB ratings (or some other statistic) between divisions or conferences
Descriptive statistics can include: (You must use standard deviation and at least 1 more item from this list)
 *Standard Deviation – explain the meaning
 Frequency Distributions
 Frequency Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Relative
Frequency Histogram, Ogive
 Dot Plot, Stem and Leaf Plot
 Pie Chart
 Probability Distribution, Binomial Distribution
Statistical tests (include both)
Confidence intervals – use 90% Hypothesis test – use
  0.10

  • report null and alternative hypothesis
  • use the critical value method (sketch and label
    curve)
  • also list p-value
    Format:
     Introduction (Thesis statement) – a statement of what you intend to support or demonstrate. This section also includes
    some background information on your subject and why it is important to study.
    o College students who commute work more hours than college students who do not commute. (This experiment
    would compare average number of hours one group works per week to the other. This is a comparing means
    problem using the t-distribution.)
    o More women drink caffeine in the morning than men. (This experiment compares the proportion of women you
    drink caffeine in the morning to the proportion of men that do the same. This is a comparing proportions problem
    and uses the z-distribution – normal distribution.)
     Research Methods and Descriptive Statistics– the procedures you used in the attempt to support your thesis and
    description of your data
    o Use charts and tables to organize and present your data.
    o Include the standard deviation of each set of data, explain the meaning of the number (use units) and compare
    the numbers. (Put the data in your calculator and have the calculator calculate the number.)
     Results – Test data or analysis – must include confidence intervals and a hypothesis test for either a population mean or a
    population proportion
    o Explain what statistical tests you used and explain how your numerical results support/refute your thesis.
    o This section should have at least 2 paragraphs, one for each statistic above, and explain clearly in each paragraph
    how the results relate to either supporting or refuting your hypothesis. Do not just report test results, discuss the
    consequence of the test results.
     Conclusion – What does your data tell you?
    o Summarize clearly what you learned from your research.
    o Discuss how this knowledge can affect the world.
    o Discuss how to improve your study including possible issues or confounding variables.
    o Make suggestions for further research. (This is different than improving your study!)
     Length – 2-4 pages (not including graphs and charts or the handwritten calculations paper)
     Handwritten Calculations – include your calculations for confidence interval(s) and hypothesis testing on a separate piece of
    paper – handwritten. Use your calculator to check the results of your calculations.
    Rubric for Statistics Paper
    Criteria 4 3 2 1
    Introduction
    Introductory paragraph,
    thesis statement – Explain
    clearly. This section also
    includes some background
    information about your
    subject and why it is
    important to study it.
     Clearly identifies and
    discusses focus/purpose of
    research
     Hypothesis/Thesis
    statement is clearly
    articulated
     Includes clear background
    information and discussion
    of why purpose is worth
    studying
     Identifies and discusses
    focus/purpose of research
     Hypothesis/Thesis
    statement is described, but
    not as will articulated
     Includes some background
    information and some
    discussion of why purpose is
    worth studying
     Limited discussion of
    research focus/purpose of
    research
     Hypothesis/Thesis
    statement is not well
    articulated
     Includes limited
    background information
    and limited discussion of
    why purpose is worth
    studying
     Little or no discussion
    research focus/purpose of
    research
     Hypothesis/Thesis
    statement is poorly
    articulated
     Includes little or no
    background information and
    little or no discussion of why
    purpose is worth studying
    Research Methods and
    Descriptive Statistics–
    How you collected your
    data and charts to display
    it. Report the standard
    deviation of each set of
    data and explain/compare
    the numbers..
     Provides accurate,
    thorough description of
    how the data was
    collected, what/how many
    data sources were
    analyzed
     Includes clear and specific
    display of data through
    charts and graphs
     Includes clear use of
    standard deviation and its
    meaning
     Description of how the data
    was collected, what/how
    many data sources were
    analyzed is adequate
     Display of data through
    charts and graphs is
    adequate, but not as clear
    or specific
     Includes use of standard
    deviation and its meaning
    but is not clear
     Description of how the
    data was collected,
    what/how many data
    sources were analyzed is
    somewhat confusing/ not
    clear
     Display of data through
    charts and graphs is not
    clear
     Includes standard
    deviation but not its
    meaning
     Description of how the data
    was collected, what/how
    many data sources were
    analyzed is not sufficiently
    articulated
     Display of data through
    charts and graphs is
    inaccurate
     Does not Includes standard
    deviation
    Results –Explain clearly.
    This section should have 2
    paragraphs, one for each
    statistic (confidence
    interval and hypothesis
    test). Explain the
    significance of your results
    in relationship to your
    thesis statement.
     Statistical analyses are
    appropriate tests, are
    accurately interpreted and
    include confidence
    intervals and a hypothesis
    test.
     Results are well organized,
    clearly explained and
    include how they support
    or refute the hypothesis in
    a comprehensive level of
    detail.
     Statistical analyses are
    appropriate tests, are not
    completely accurately
    interpreted and includes
    only one confidence
    interval.
     Results are explained
    including how they
    support/refute the
    hypothesis in a but not as
    detailed and/or organized
     Statistical analyses are
    inappropriate tests, and/or
    are not accurately
    interpreted.
     Results are not very clearly
    explained, level of detail is
    insufficient and/or
    organizational issues exist
     Statistical analyses are not
    appropriate tests, and are
    not accurately interpreted
    or are not present.
     Results are not clearly
    explained, without detail
    and/or has serious
    organizational issues
    Conclusions – Summarize
    what you learned. Discuss
    how this knowledge can
    affect the world. Discuss
    issues/ confounding
    variables. Make
    suggestions for 1. making
    your study better and 2.
    further research. (These
    are two different
    suggestions.)
     Summarizes clearly and
    thoroughly what you
    learned and how your
    research can affect
    decisions that need to be
    made in the world.
     Discussion of making your
    study better and possible
    issues/confounding
    variables is clear and
    insightful.
     Suggestions for further
    research in this area are
    insightful and thoughtful.
     Summarizes what you
    learned and how your
    research can affect
    decisions that need to be
    made in the world, but not
    as clearly or thoroughly.
     Discussion of making your
    study better and possible
    issues/confounding
    variables is adequate.
     Suggestions for further
    research in this area are
    adequate.
     Limited summary of what
    you learned and how your
    research can affect
    decisions that need to be
    made in the world.
     Discussion of making your
    study better and possible
    issues/confounding
    variables is very limited.
     Suggestions for further
    research in this area are
    very limited.
     Severely limited summary of
    what you learned and how
    your research can affect
    decisions that need to be
    made in the world.
     Discussion of making your
    study better and possible
    issues/confounding
    variables is severely limited.
     Suggestions for further
    research in this area are
    severely limited.
    Spelling and Grammar/
    Length
     No spelling and/or
    grammar mistakes
     2-4 pages
     Minimal spelling and/or
    grammar mistakes
     2-4 pages
     Noticeable spelling and/or
    grammar mistakes
     Not 2-4 pages
     Excessive spelling and/or
    grammar mistakes
     Not 2-4 pages
    Handwritten Calculations
    – for confidence intervals
    and hypothesis test (not
    standard deviation)
     Hand calculations of
    confidence intervals and
    hypothesis test are clear,
    neat and correct
     Hand calculations of
    confidence intervals and
    hypothesis test somewhat
    clear, neat and correct
     Hand calculations are not
    clear, neat and correct, or
    not complete
     No hand calculations
    Adapted from http://www.cornellcollege.edu/LIBRARY/faculty/focusing-on-assignments/tools-for-assessment/original-research-project-rubric.shtml
    Grade: Topic (on time -2pts.)
    Introduction (x2)

    Research Methods (x2)
    Results (x4)

    Conclusions (x2) Total_____/50
    Handwritten calc.
    Calc/Spelling/ Length
  

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