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EBPAS9 Recommending an Evidence-Based Practice Change The collection of evidence is an activity that occurs with an endgame in mind. For e

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Recommending an Evidence-Based Practice Change

The collection of evidence is an activity that occurs with an endgame in mind. For example, law enforcement professionals collect evidence to support a decision to charge those accused of criminal activity. Similarly, evidence-based healthcare practitioners collect evidence to support decisions in pursuit of specific healthcare outcomes.
In this Assignment, you will identify an issue or opportunity for change within your healthcare organization and propose an idea for a change in practice supported by an EBP approach.

To Prepare:

Reflect on the four peer-reviewed articles you critically appraised in Module 4.
Reflect on your current healthcare organization and think about potential opportunities for evidence-based change.

The Assignment:(Evidence-Based Project)

Part 5: Recommending an Evidence-Based Practice Change

Create an 8- to 9-slide PowerPoint presentation in which you do the following:
Briefly describe your healthcare organization, including its culture and readiness for change. (You may opt to keep various elements of this anonymous, such as your company name.)
Describe the current problem or opportunity for change. Include in this description the circumstances surrounding the need for change, the scope of the issue, the stakeholders involved, and the risks associated with change implementation in general.
Propose an evidence-based idea for a change in practice using an EBP approach to decision making. Note that you may find further research needs to be conducted if sufficient evidence is not discovered.
Describe your plan for knowledge transfer of this change, including knowledge creation, dissemination, and organizational adoption and implementation.
Describe the measurable outcomes you hope to achieve with the implementation of this evidence-based change.
Be sure to provide APA citations of the supporting evidence-based peer reviewed articles you selected to support your thinking.
Add a lessons learned section that includes the following:
A summary of the critical appraisal of the peer-reviewed articles you previously submitted
An explanation about what you learned from completing the Evaluation Table within the Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template (1-3 slides) Evaluation Table

Use this document to complete the
evaluation table
requirement of the Module 4 Assessment, Evidence-Based Project, Part 4A: Critical Appraisal of Research

Full APA formatted citation of selected article.

Article #1

Article #2

Article #3

Article #4

Prendergast, M. L. (2009). Interventions to Promote Successful Re-Entry Among Drug-Abusing Parolees.Addiction Science & Clinical Practice,5(1), 413. doi: 10.1151/ascp09514.

Carpenter, C. S., McClellan, C. B., & Rees, D. I. (2017). Economic conditions, illicit drug use, and substance use disorders in the United States.Journal of Health Economics,52, 63-73.

Nigg, J. (2018). Self-regulation, behavioral inhibition, and risk for alcoholism and substance use disorders. InAlcohol Use Disorders: A Developmental Science Approach to Etiology(pp. 131-142). Oxford University Press.

McHugh, R. K., Votaw, V. R., Sugarman, D. E., & Greenfield, S. F. (2018). Sex and gender differences in substance use disorders.Clinical psychology review,66, 12-23

Evidence Level *

(I, II, or III)

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level II

Conceptual Framework

Describe the theoretical basis for the study (If there is not one mentioned in the article, say that here).**

The study sets to see if paroled inmates after their sentence are more likely to remain drug free than the non-paroled ones.

Relation of Economic conditions in relation to illicit drugs other than marijuana.

Sex and Gender differences in biology, epidemiology and treatment of SUDs.

Describe the design and how the study was carried out (In detail, including inclusion/exclusion criteria).

The use of secondary sources who studied inmates later than 2000.

Secondary sources used in studies of treatment in women for their drug abuse.


The number and characteristics of

patients, attrition rate, etc.

A number of inmates from different sources were picked and tested. These were found through secondary sources.

Randomized clinical trial from secondary research sources.

Major Variables Studied

List and define dependent and independent variables

Dependent variables-drug relapse
Independent variable-type of treatment

Parole or not paroled

DV-Drug abuse
IV- Economic situation of individual

Economic background

Demographic characteristics

IVs- Gender differences

Substance use

Social factors, environmental factors

Dependent Variable-Treatment of SUDs


Identify primary statistics used to answer clinical questions (You need to list the actual tests done).

Qualitative method of statistics was used.
Meta-analytics and significance tests were run.

Qualitative method of research using content analysis and interviews.

Mixed method. Qualitative and quantitative research.

Qualitative method was used. Interviews were done in addition to the secondary sources.

Data Analysis Statistical or

Qualitative findings
(You need to enter the actual numbers determined by the statistical tests or qualitative data).

Conventionally, an effect size of r = .10 is small; r = .30 is medium; and r = .50 is large. Another way to interpret r is as the percentage difference in the outcome between the treatment group and the comparison group; thus, an effect size of r = .15 for arrests can be interpreted as a 15 percentage point difference in arrests in favor of the treatment group.

This has been shown for varied substances, including large randomized trials of pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (N=1,226; 31% women; and prescription opioid dependence (N=653, 40% women;
In a meta-analysis of 32 smoking cessation trials (N=14,389, 51% women), the efficacy of varenicline relative to placebo was comparable in men and women; however, women had greater benefits of varenicline relative to both nicotine replacement

Findings and Recommendations

General findings and recommendations of the research

It is found that most inmates that were rearrested or served new sentences were parolees who never went through drug therapy in their time of service.

Drug overdose decreased significantly as house prices went higher.

Significant effects was only found in whit non-Hispanic males under 45.

It is found that the biological difference in men and women lead to different qualities of the treatment.

Some saw significant differences while other showed that there is no big genetic composition to cause a response differences

Appraisal and Study Quality

Describe the general worth of this research to practice.
What are the strengths and limitations of study?
What are the risks associated with implementation of the suggested practices or processes detailed in the research?
What is the feasibility of use in your practice?

The quality of the appraisal is valid and well worthy. We find a possible cause in drug relapse in former inmates.

Different sources

Recent sources

Accurate findings to thesis


No new data thus no EBP.

The research is valid and findings show there is a linkage between use of illicit drugs and economic background.

Researcher conducted research personally and therefore there is more flexibility and accuracy to research.

The research is worth it as it shows that different drugs have different responses.


Within and between subject analysis

Different drugs were tested.


Male results were not show and sufficiently compared to that of female

Key findings

The type of treatments that inmates who were indulging in drugs heavily affects whether they relapse or not.

The type of neighborhood affects use of illicit drugs. Neighborhoods with cheaper rent exhibited more overdose cases.

Biological differences can lead to difference in response to treatment on males and females depending on the type of treatment.


Most inmates who do not get treatment while in prison for their drug addictions are likely to relapse and be rearrested.

Those of a poorer economic backgrounds were more susceptible to drug overdose.

Women did not react well to some treatments or werent sufficient which puts them at a risk of relapse.

General Notes/Comments

Recovery programs for addicts especially those that have been in prison should be established in different locations of every region so that the patients can have easy access to the services and help when they need it.

Solutions should be established to help people find jobs as unemployment and lack of money result in spiked stress levels that result in the individual indulging in drug abuse. Families need to support other people in all ways possible to prevent them from getting addicted or relapsing during treatment

Recovery is an issue of teamwork because no matter how good the doctor is and the patient is not cooperating, and then the desired results will not be achieved. It is essential for patients to play their part in the recovery process by self-regulating themselves and to stay away from things that might cause a relapse.

Women and men are affected and influenced by different factors that lead them to drug abuse or substance use. Healthcare practitioners should be aware of these factors so that they can formulate different strategies for each gender to enhance successful treatment programs for each gender.


These levels are from the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice: Evidence Level and Quality Guide

Level I

Experimental, randomized controlled trial (RCT), systematic review RTCs with or without meta-analysis

Level II

Quasi-experimental studies, systematic review of a combination of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies, or quasi-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis

Level III

Nonexperimental, systematic review of RCTs, quasi-experimental with/without meta-analysis, qualitative, qualitative systematic review with/without meta-synthesis

Level IV

Respected authorities opinions, nationally recognized expert committee/consensus panel reports based on scientific evidence

Level V

Literature reviews, quality improvement, program evaluation, financial evaluation, case reports, nationally recognized expert(s) opinion based on experiential evidence

**Note on Conceptual Framework

The following information is from Walden academic guides which helps explain conceptual frameworks and the reasons they are used in research.
Researchers create theoretical and conceptual frameworks that include a philosophical and methodological model to help design their work. A formal theory provides context for the outcome of the events conducted in the research. The data collection and analysis are also based on the theoretical and conceptual framework.

As stated by Grant and Osanloo (2014), Without a theoretical framework, the structure and vision for a study is unclear, much like a house that cannot be constructed without a blueprint. By contrast, a research plan that contains a theoretical framework allows the dissertation study to be strong and structured with an organized flow from one chapter to the next.

Theoretical and conceptual frameworks provide evidence of academic standards and procedure. They also offer an explanation of why the study is pertinent and how the researcher expects to fill the gap in the literature.

Literature does not always clearly delineate between a theoretical or conceptual framework. With that being said, there are slight differences between the two.

The Johns Hopkins Hospital/Johns Hopkins University (n.d.). Johns Hopkins nursing dvidence-based practice: appendix C: evidence level and quality guide. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from

Grant, C., & Osanloo, A. (2014). Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your” House”. Administrative Issues Journal: Education, Practice, and Research, 4(2), 12-26.
Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template

2018 Laureate Education Inc.



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