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Describes and justifies methods and statistical tools (if applicable) used for analysis. For Quantitative you should include the above.

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Quantitative Methodology Tips Sheet

Problem Statement

· What is the purpose of your study?

Student EX: The question in this research study is to quantitatively analyze if servant leadership affects the longevity of employees within an organization. The dependent variable is employee longevity and the seven dimensions of servant leadership are the independent variables (Liden et al., 2008). The seven dimensions or constructs of servant leadership are conceptualizing, emotional healing, putting followers first, helping subordinates grow and succeed, behaving ethically, empowering, and creating value for the community (Liden et al., 2008).

· What are your descriptor variables?

Example for explaining variables:

The dependent variables are leadership style preferences indicated from the (survey name) results. The independent variables are the previously mentioned demographic factors (or whatever you are looking at)

Tips for deciding the dependent and independent variables: I like the example provided by USC Writing Center. 

USC Writing Center Explanation:

A variable in research simply refers to a person, place, thing, or phenomenon that you are trying to measure in some way. The best way to understand the difference between a dependent and independent variable is that the meaning of each is implied by what the words tell us about the variable you are using. You can do this with a simple exercise from the website, Graphic Tutorial. Take the sentence, “The [independent variable] causes a change in [dependent variable] and it is not possible that [dependent variable] could cause a change in [independent variable].” Insert the names of variables you are using in the sentence in the way that makes the most sense. This will help you identify each type of variable. 


USC Writing Center (2021).,the%20variable%20you%20are%20using.
More on “What are Variables?”

· This link by NCES has a very good


NCES. 2021. Variables.

Research Approach and Strategy

· Tell the reader what research approach you are using

· Explain why you are using that research approach rationale for each question

Student Example for Research Approach: A correlational design study will be used to link associations between the seven servant leadership dimensions and employee longevity (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).

Student Example for Explain/Justify: Correlational design is useful in this study as there are multiple points of relational data which try to determine if any of the independent variables relate to, or show a prevalence towards, employee longevity (Curtis et al., 2106). In this study, quantitative research effectively represents the relationships of the independent variables (seven servant leadership dimensions) and the dependent variable (employee longevity) (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).

Sources and Data Collection

· Identify the type of survey/sample you are using/plan to use

· Explains and justifies type of survey/sample you are using

· If you are using human participants how human rights will be protected

· Describes and justifies Data collection methods and procedures, including how, when, where, and by whom data were collected

Example (Justify/Template)

· The (blank survey name) is the optimal choice for looking at (whatever you are investigating) among (whoever) because the survey is known for its unique (whatever). In contrast to the (whatever survey you choose), the SYBVM Survey does not look at (whatever), such as the XYZM-Transformational style of leadership designated within the (survey you choose) (cite).

Student Example: A cross-sectional Servant Leadership survey, using Survey Monkey, will be sent out randomly using an Internet social media platform (Liden et al., 2008). Accuracy and reliability are improved with the use of random sampling while also eliminating bias and variations (Rodriguez, 2016). The survey includes 28 servant leadership questions which are rated by the respondent on a seven point Likert scale. The rating scale scores and groups each of the servant leadership attributes (Liden et al., 2008). In addition, there are three questions related to time employed within the organization. This survey, and its method of collecting and assessing the data, is used to look for relationships between variables (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).Data Collection & Analysis Methods· Describes and justifies methods and statistical tools (if applicable) used for analysis. For Quantitative you should include the above.· Discusses measures taken to enhance study validityExample:Statistical tests were used to analyze survey responses from the (insert survey name).Tip: The analysis should be discussed in relation to your research questions.Example: A MANOVA test was used to address research question one. The MANOVA test was used to determine if any of the demographic independent variables impact leadership style preferences based on age, sex, and years of experience as a superintendent.Goal 1: Name which test you are using to address the research question.Goal 2: Explain how the test is being used and list your variables.Not sure how to choose a test? Look at the select a statistical test Decision TreeStudent Example: Data collection will take place through Survey Monkey. Scoring of the surveys will be done using the multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment provided in Line’s Servant Leadership Questionnaire (Arizona State University, n.d.). This multi-dimensional, multi-level assessment assigns scores to each of the 28 Servant Leadership Survey questions. Once the scoring is complete, questions are grouped according to the seven servant leadership dimensions which represent the independent variables (Arizona State University, n.d.).A multiple regression analysis of the aggregated survey responses to quantify therelationships between the dependent variable (employee longevity) and the seven independentvariables (seven servant leadership dimensions). The multiple regression analysis best suits thisstudy because it can not only lead to making associations with multiple independent variables(Cohen & Cohen, 1983). Multiple regression analysis is a data analysis tool associated withsurvey type research (Cohen & Cohen, 1983).The validity of this study is first enhanced by using Liden et al.’s survey instrument.Liden’s servant leadership dimensions are well differentiated, permission is not required for itsuse, and the servant leadership survey is an accepted instrument in leadership studies (Rodriquez,2016). The second source of study validity is the source of the survey respondents which isthrough random sampling (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). Random sampling offers the highestchance of retrieving survey respondents that best represent the population at large (Creswell &Creswell, 2018). The third source of study validity arises from the use of correlational researchand multiple dimensional analysis. This system is well used in quantitative research whererelationships between one dependent variable and two or more independent variables areanalyzed (Multiple Regression, 2021).Ethical Considerations and LimitationsTips for discussing ethical considerations and limitations. I recommend the Limitations section of USC Organizing and Writing Guide.

USC. 2021.Organizing Your Research Paper.
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