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CyberCrime Week 4-Ransomware Ransomware involves the kidnapping of an organization’s electronically stored assets. They are sealed with encryption de

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CyberCrime Week 4-Ransomware
Ransomware involves the kidnapping of an organization’s electronically stored assets. They are sealed with encryption devices that prevent the owner from accessing the data or assets. When the owner pays the ransom through remote financial channels the kidnappers release the assets to the owner by providing him with the encryption information. If your business or organization was victimized with a ransomware attack what would you do? Provide at least one reason why you would pay and one reason why you wouldn’t give in to the kidnapper’s demands. Cite case examples to support one or both sides.

1

CYBER CRIME

Chapter 4

Objectives

Explore the current state of Internet crimes

Discuss emerging trends in Web-based crime

Describe the six classifications of motive for computer intruders

Become familiar with more computer terms and recent laws that aid the government in cracking down on computer criminals

Gain knowledge of modern terrorists and their use of technology which is changing the face of terrorism

Details

I.Web-Based Criminal Activity: Introduction

Originally computer crime referred to theft of computers or components

Cyberage changed the focus to theft of information

Combination of the computer and telecommunications has increased crime in cyberspace

The Anonymity factor has expanded the number of offenders

Internet gambling promoted by the Web increased across the country

People who would never walk into an Adult book store view porn at home

Individuals who would be afraid to commit a violent bank robbery would alter bank records or manipulate stock records

People who were reluctant to take revenge through traditional avenues may feel comfortable posting embarrassing or compromising information on the Web

Hackers have become a significant threat to achieve publicity

Hacker group named Global Hell suspected of hacking into Army, FBI and WH

Impact of computer crime

Financial losses

Personal security (Identity theft)

Industrial espionage

International security

Public safety

Eco-terrorism

Traditional competition among companies may have escalated to malicious destruction of data or theft by physical means

The internet introduced interconnectivity of technical devices within corporations which increased the vulnerability of companies information assets

Impact of a physical mail bomb (explosive device) was limited to the immediate physical area surrounding the packaging

Impact of an e-mail bomb is potentially very broad and may include a dismantling of the companys informational infrastructure

Viruses

( 1960s) first computer virus named, the rabbit: reduced productivity of computer systems by cloning themselves and occupying system resources

Rabbits were local and could not spread across systems

Caused by mistakes or pranks by system programmers

Four Distinct Eras of Computer Viruses

Classical Era (1960s-1970s); system anomalies; accidents; pranks by system administrators

Floppy Era (1980s-1990s); infection of DOS machines spread by removable media; easy to detect, isolate and eliminate

Macro Era (1990s-2000s); infect documents and templates, not

programs; virus infects system when user opens the corrupted document

(Microsoft-Macintosh); further spread by e-mails, networks and the

Internet

Melissa Virus (1999); infected 20% of US largest businesses; created by David Smith, advertised to contain password to Adult Web sites; propagated itself by sending virus to victims computer address files;

Sentenced to 20 months in federal prison and $5,000 fine

Internet Era ( 2000-present); used infected systems address book to spread infections

CodeRed: scanned internet for vulnerable machines, then infected them

Nimda: infected computers with corrupt e-mails that entered computer if user viewed MS Outlook through a preview window

Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks

Primary objective is to disable a system, not access

Mail bombing: jam system server with voluminous e-mails

Manipulation of phone switches

Low level data transmission

Directed at Amazon, eBay and Yahoo

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks

(1991); first DDoS attacks; use large batches of compromised computers, named Zombies or bots, to increase their impact on victims

Most owners of Zombie computers were unaware that they were compromised

Motivations range from boredom to theft to extortion

Hacktivists have launched DDoS attacks against religious and financial organizations

(2006) Organized crime family was threatened with DDoS attack of the orgs

online gaming site. The org paid protection money (extortion)

Spam: Abuse of electronic messaging systems to randomly or indiscriminately send unsolicited bulk messages

Traditionally used by businesses to advertise

Also used by porn sites

Recent study disclosed significant loss of productivity by businesses caused by workers deleting spam from their computers at work; $22 billion

Attacks increasing: spread viruses; malware, DDoS, identity theft, promote political extremism

(2006) Can Spam Act used to convict Daniel Lin; three years, federal prison; $10,000 fine

Distributed millions of e-mail messages with fraudulent header information through a variety of zombie computers advertising health care products

Ransomeware

Used most often to extort money from victims

Malware program which encrypts or disables computer system until demands are met (extortion)

Originally surfaced in 1989 then went low key until 2005

Greatest risk to cyber criminal is being identified when money is transferred

Create e-shell companies to accept ransom money

Use legitimate online merchant to receive money from victim for commission based referral service

II. Theft of Information, Data Manipulation and Web Encroachment

Two methods of obtaining confidential information- computer system intrusion & employees

Employees are the most vulnerable component

Criminals use deceptive practices through social engineering to gain access to company computers or telephone systems

Criminals disguise themselves as vendors for security system or IT department

Employees fail to protect their passwords due to laziness and lack of security awareness

Criminals use shoulder surfing as a method to gain confidential information: watching over someones shoulder as they log on or input data into their computer

Employees discard confidential information in common garbage receptacles instead of designated Confidential Bins or paper shredders

Business and government entities do not set employee training as a high priority

Trade Secrets and Copyrights

Some criminals sell proprietary information to industry competitors for personal gain or national patriotism

Gillette corporation employee was caught using company equipment to solicit bids for the design specs for Gillettes Mach-3 razor

French government ( Intelligence Service) used eavesdropping devices on French planes to obtain confidential information from an American company that was competing against a French company for business contracts

Political Espionage

Advanced technology has also increased the threats to the nations public infrastructure from communications to banking

Theft of information is a significant threat

Government entities have been criticized for not investing enough money to protect secrets technologically stored or created

Recent audit of laptop computers for US State Department:

did not have an accurate accounting for classified and unclassified laptop computers in bureaus covered in the audit

27 laptops were missing

35 were not available for inspection

57 had been disposed

215 laptops were inspected for encryption protection: 172 failed

FBI estimates at least 120 foreign governments actively pursuing information in the US

Traditional methods of stealing CPUs, employee laptops and other devices are very common

Employees failed to adequately safeguard the laptops in many cases

III. Cyberterrorism
:

politically or religiously motivated attack against data compilations, computer programs, and/or information systems

intended to disrupt and/or deny service or acquire information

which disrupts the social, physical, or political infrastructure of a target

Computers may be the target or be incidental to the activity i.e. the means of retrieving the information

Attacks may be in the form of hackng, DDoS, viruses, worms

Centers of Disease Control (CDC)

Altering small portion of a formula for a vaccination

Changing labeling instructions for biological contaminants

Systematically removing years of priceless research or patients records

Introduction of viruses or worms could wreak havoc on public health

A virus destroyed over 40% of patients records in one US hospital

Terrorist Organization Propaganda Dissemination

International (Nation of Islam) and domestic (White Aryan Resistance) use virtual platforms to spread their messages

Solicit funds and recruit new members

Communicate with each other via e-mails using strong encryption protections

Ramzi Yousef (WTC bombing conspirator had bombing plans in encrypted files on his laptop computer)

Launching of DDoS and defacement of Web sites of foreign governments

Chinese hackivists threatened to launch DoS attacks against American financial institutions and government sites following the crash of a US spy plane and Chinese fighter plane

Neotraditional Crime

Dissemination of Contraband

Child Pornography: Many pedophiles and child porn peddlers meet on the electronic bulletin boards and chat rooms

They are protected under the First Amendment because they have the same common carrier status as the telephone company and post office

Example: NAMBLA (North American Man Boy Love Association) has a Web-site

Motivations for child pornography possession

Pedophilia or hebephilia: satisfies sexual fantasies or provide gratification for those individuals who are sexually interested in prepubescent children or adolescents

Sexual miscreants: satisfies a new and different sexual stimuli

Curiosity seekers: possession satisfies a peculiar curiosity

Criminal opportunists: possession and subsequent distribution is designed for economic profit

Profile of Offenders ( Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention & National Center for Missing and Exploited Children)

White males older than 25

Majority (83%) had images of prepubescent children engaging in sex

More than 20% depicted sexual violence toward the children

40% arrested for child porn were considered dual offenders (also sexually victimized children)

15% attempted to sexually victimize children by soliciting undercover police who posed online as minors

Most of the child porn cases (60 %) originated from local and state agencies; balance by federal and international authorities

Above statistics are based upon arrest records only so extent of online victimization of children via the Internet is difficult to determine

On Line Victim Profile

Children who express frustration with parental controls or appear nave or vulnerable

Children are confused about their sexuality

Children who express feelings of being outsiders from their peer groups

Children who enjoy unsupervised computer communications

Many children actively seek association with adult suitors but many are lured into fictional relationships that encourage dangerous liaisons

Online Pharmacies

Convenient in terms of shopping and ordering

Many operate illegally w/o licenses or dispense medicines in states where they are not licensed

Some dont require a valid prescription

Some dispense medicine on demand w/o prescription

Operation Cyber Chase 2005

Illegal online pharmaceutical sales operation based in India

Supplied drugs for 200 Web sites

Sold $20 million worth of controlled substances w/o prescriptions global customers

FBI and DEA arrested individuals from India, Canada and US

Seized $7 million from banks and 7 million doses of drugs

Online Gambling

First online gambling casino launched (Internet Casinos, Inc.)

Revenues for 2005 were $10 billion; projected to increase to $180 billion by 2015

Significant support from politicians, labor unions and community groups

Lack of physicality makes online casinos accessible to any user with a computer, Iphone or IPAD

Continuous operation makes them accessible 24/7

Accessibility to minors increase the consumer base as proper age verification is not attempted

Increase in e-banking allows users to access funds w/o leaving their chair; psychological intangibility of e-cash encourages customers to overspend

Risks to individuals and communities

Addiction

Bankruptcy

Crime

Fail to create jobs or other revenue

Threatening and Harassing Communications

Stalking: willful, malicious, and repeated following and/or harassing another person in an effort to inflict or cause fear of actual harm through words or deeds

Offender profile: White males(18-35)

Victim profile: Females or Children

Categories of Motivation

Obsessional Stalkers: re-establish relationship with unwilling partner and are considered to be the most dangerous

Love Obsession Stalker: individuals have low self-esteem and target victim they hold in high regard

Erotomaniacs: stalkers are delusional and believe victims are in love with them or had a previous relationship with them

Vengeance or Terrorist Stalker: economic gain or revenge

Cyberstalking: same definition as stalking but done by electronic means

Activities may be threatening or may result in injury

Sending barrage of threatening e-mails

Cyberharassment

Activities are threatening, harassing or injurious on their face

Focuses on actual harm suffered including defacement of character

Posting fictitious or slanderous information in a public forum

Courts have been reluctant to establish electronic boundaries of the First Amendment and have narrowly interpreted cyberstalking and cyberharassment legislation

Cyberbullying: Aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend themselves

May be committed using e-mails, social networking sites, Web pages, blogs, chat rooms, or instant messaging

Case example: 10/17/2006, Megan Meier, 13, committed suicide after receiving hateful e-mails and IMs from an adult female (mother of former friend and classmate of Megan) posing as a teen-age boy. Suspect was indicted on several charges and found guilty on one misdemeanor violation of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, subsequently overturned

Online Fraud: fraud is the intentional deception, misrepresentation, or falsehood made with the intention of receiving unwarranted compensation or gratification

Internet has provided cybercriminals anonymity and accessibility to the global community of citizens and businesses

Auction Fraud: common fraudulent activity on the Internet: 4 types

Nondelivery: accepts payment for item, fails to deliver

Misrepresentation: deceives bidder on condition of item

Fee-stacking: adds hidden charges to the advertised price of an item (ship-handling)

Shill bidding: seller drives up price of their own item by making bids on their own items

Case Example: page 10

Online Credit Card Fraud

Skimming: fraudsters install devices on card readers located in ATMs, gas pumps, restaurants wherever magnetic strip credit card readers are employed. The information is transferred to another card for downloading

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): fraudsters use them to copy credit card information as they walk past individuals in street, subways, malls, concerts, etc.

Information gleaned from the above techniques may be sold on carding sites where other criminals can purchase credit card dumps

Securities Fraud

Manipulating stock prices by posting false information on fraudulent Web sites and legitimate Web sites

Page 104-105 for cases

Insider Trading

Individuals using chat rooms to provide others with material non-public information on companies

Note case on page 105

e-Fencing: sale of stolen goods through tech means

organized retail theft rings post stolen goods on online auction sites

Fraudulent Instruments: Counterfeiting & Forgery

Counterfeiting: act of creating a fraudulent document with criminal intent

Forgery: act of falsifying a document with criminal intent

Made easier with high-level graphics software and hardware advances

Create fraudulent payroll checks and generate forged signatures for authentication

Ancillary Crimes

Money Laundering: enterprise or practice of engaging in deliberate financial transactions to conceal the identity, source, and/or destination of income.

Three stages

Placement: initial point of entry for illicit funds (open account)

Layering: develop complex network of transactions to obscure source of illegal funds

Integration: return funds to legitimate economy Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime
CHAPTER
Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Contemporary Computer Crime
4

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives
Explore the current state of Internet crimes in the United States and abroad.

Identify emerging trends in web-based crime.

Develop a working knowledge of the six classifications of motive for modern computer intruders.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives
Become familiar with more computer terms and recent laws that aid the government in cracking down on computer criminals.

Gain knowledge of modern terrorists and their use of technology which is changing the face of terrorism completely.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Web-Based Criminal Activity
Computer crime can involve more than Internet-based activities:
Financial losses
Threats to personal security (i.e., identity theft)
Industrial espionage
Threats to international security
Threats to public safety

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Web-Based Criminal Activity
Online crime, however, can include:
Interference with lawful use of computers, such as eco-terrorism, DOS attacks, use of malware (e.g., viruses, worms) malware, cybervandalism, cyberterrorism, spam, etc.
Theft of information and copyright infringement, such as industrial espionage, ID theft, and ID fraud.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Web-Based Criminal Activity
Dissemination of contraband or offensive materials, such as pornography, child pornography, online gaming, and treasonous or racist material
Threatening communications, such as extortion, cyberstalking, cyberharassment, and cyberbullying
Fraud, such as auction fraud, credit card fraud, theft of services, and stock manipulation
Ancillary crimes, such as money laundering and conspiracy

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Malware: Viruses
Viruses, their design, and dissemination, have gone through different phases:
Classical Era (1960s1970s): Involved pranks or were accidentally distributed
Floppy Era (1980s1990s): Targeted DOS machines; primarily distributed via floppy disks
Macro Era (1990s2000s): Infected documents and templates, rather than programs
Internet Era (2000present): More sophisticated, seeking out vulnerable systems

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Malware: Worms, DoS, and Botnets
Worms seem primarily used to set up a large-scale DoS attack.

DoS (Denial of Service) and DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) Attacks
Attempt to overwhelm servers, such as through mail-bombing.

Botnets and Zombie Armies
Using zombies, compromised computers linked to Internet as an army (or botnet), for theft, extortion, or DDOS attack, for example.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Malware: Spam
Spam
Abuse of electronic messaging systems, taking up resources, across multiple platforms

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Malware: Ransomware
Ransomware and the Kidnapping of Information
Malware program that makes digital resources inoperable or inaccessible in extortive scheme
Critical factors can include level of user’s education (less educated, more vulnerable), sophistication of product (not amenable to common software remedies)

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Malware: Ransomware
Examples include the PC Cyborg/Aids information Trojan, distributed through ordinary mail via a floppy, so that once installed, victims had to pay $378 to regain access to all directories and to unencrypt files.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Theft of Information, Data Manipulation, and Web Encroachment
Traditional methods of proprietary information theft can occur due to:

Insiders, on the job or through maintenance back doors
Social engineering, including shoulder surfing and dumpster diving
Theft of equipment
Malware

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Theft of Information, Data Manipulation, and Web Encroachment
Trade Secrets and Copyrights Concerns:

These forms of intellectual property have value independent of whatever owner produces, such as a razor company designing a new shaving system.
Theft can come from disgruntled employees, competitors, and government entities.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Theft of Information, Data Manipulation, and Web Encroachment
Political Espionage Seriousness:

FBI estimates that over 120 foreign governments have intelligence operations targeting the U.S.
For example, Israeli intelligence secretly monitored Presidential communications.

SEARCH (2000). The Investigation of Computer Crime. The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics: Sacramento, CA.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Cyberterrorism
Adeliberate, politically or religiously motivated attack against data compilations, computer programs, and/or information systems which is intended to disrupt and/or deny service or acquire information which disrupts the social, physical, or political infrastructure of a target.

Typical array of methods, like viruses and worms, against U.S. government

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Dissemination of Contraband or Offensive Materials
Child Pornography
Difficult to define, but generally refers to any visual depiction of a lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area or sexually explicit conduct of a minor
Difficult to prosecute, as this raises First Amendment issues about freedom of speech

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Child Pornography
Illegal in all states, prohibited by Federal law
Primary reason for possession is pedophilia or hebephilia, to satisfy sexual fantasies about prepubescent children
Sexual miscreants: to satisfy a desire for new and different sexual stimuli
Curiosity-seekers: to satisfy a peculiar curiosity
Criminal opportunists: to profit from its distribution

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Child Enticement/Exploitation
As a way to generate child pornography and to molest children, online predators use chat rooms to identify victims, especially confused or ostracized kids.
Law enforcement has had great success with sting operations or honeypots by using the same strategy as predators, of pretending to be a child and arranging for a meeting.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Online Pharmacies

Used to make legitimate and illegitimate purchases (e.g. anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and painkillers) privately and conveniently

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Online Gambling
Ease of access, including minors
Open all day
e-Banking makes it easier to play
Might generate billions in profit
Internet Gambling Prohibition & Enforcement Act of 2006 makes it illegal, but is difficult to enforce due to lack of public, international cooperation.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Threatening and harassing communications:
Cyberstalking and Harassment
Stalking: Willful, malicious, and repeated following and/or harassing another person in an effort to inflict or cause fear of actual harm through words or deeds committed via electronic means
Cyberstalking: Done via electronic communication
Cyberharassment: Focuses on actual harm suffered, including defacement of character

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Cyberbulling: An aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself

Illegal only in some states, not under Federal law

Smith et al., 2008: 376.

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Online Fraud
Intentional deception, misrepresentation, or falsehood made with the intention of receiving unwarranted compensation or gratification
Cuts across gender, social class, and race
Comes in a broad array of forms

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Internet auction fraud can come in the form of:
Nondelivery of goods
Misrepresentation as to condition of an item
Addition of hidden charges (fee-stacking)
Shill bidding (where seller submits bids to drive up price of item)

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Online Credit Card Fraud: Besides traditional fraud, can include:
Skimming (installing devices at ATMs, for example, to steal info from cards)
RFID (taking info from “wave and pay” device, like toll highway transmitters)

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Web-Cramming/ISP Jacking
Web-Cramming: The unauthorized charging of consumers via monthly telecommunication fees
ISP Jacking: Disconnecting individual users from their selected Internet service providers and redirecting them to illegitimate servers to generate long distance charges for those using dial-up

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Fraud via Data Manipulation
Data Diddling: Any method of fraud via data manipulation (usually involves redirecting or rerouting data representing monies or economic exchanges)
Salami technique: Stealing fraction of a cent from millions of accounts, so as to go undetected
IP Spoofing: Manipulation of data packets between computers to mimic a third party and falsely gain access to funds

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles
Securities Fraud and Stock Manipulation
Having instant access to stock values and statistics, encouraging day-trading, buying stock with little or no actual knowledge of the company
Vulnerable to dissemination of false information, used to trick individuals to purchase stock at inflated prices
Insider trading: Individuals with access to confidential information unavailable to public use it to make stock purchases/sales, for personal gain

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Neo-Traditional Crime: Old Wine in New Bottles

e-Fencing: Sale of stolen goods through technological means

Fraudulent Instruments: Including counterfeiting and forgery through technological means

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Ancillary Crimes
Money Laundering

An enterprise or practice of engaging in deliberate financial transactions to conceal the identity, source, and/or destination of income
Usually a critical element for organized crime to function

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Ancillary Crimes
Process of Money Laundering

Placement (point of entry of illicit funds)
Layering (using networks to obscure origins of funds)
Integration (return of funds to legitimate economy)

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Ancillary Crimes
Combating Money Laundering
Finding
Freezing (accounts)
Forfeiture (of funds)

This can be accomplished by:
Holding Internet service providers accountable for failure to maintain adequate records
Making financial institutions responsible for inadequate security
Enforcing Know Your Customers regulations

Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime, 3rd ed.
Marjie T. Britz
Copyright 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved

Conclusions
Technology both enhances & threatens modern society.
Computer crime is increasing for a variety of reasons:
Computers are equivalent to storage warehouses
Increasing connectivity & interdependence of infrastructures
Technical expertise is decreasingly important
Increasing number of threat groups with sophisticated methodologies & advance technology
Government apathy

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