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Architecture History Final

1. Match the following what American native people to the description that best describes their architecture and culture
Ancestral Peubloans

These people see themselves and their land as the beating heart of Mother Earth. Their rituals are derived from stories passed down to each other and a form of sacred knowledge. Without scientific evidence and often in conflict with western rationalism they have been warning us about our destruction for decades

These people of the horse were brilliant riders who took a new animal introduced to the world and made it into a part of their being, they used it to remain free and dominant until their horses were slaughtered.

This may be the best farming culture ever. Massive canals, salt-fixing planting methods and a thousand years of peace through dancing rituals

This was not one people but many, who came together and built places of ritual and harvest, then moved on to another sacred place.

These cedar-planked buildings are oriented at the center of the cosmos, facing towards the source of their sacred food, the ocean. The art is a form of teaching about sacred ancestors and spirit animals.

A complex heirarchical society who left mysterious geoglyphs and sacred cities on the landscape




TRUE or FALSE: The Maya collapsed and disappeared.

1. Match the site or culture to the description that best characterizes its role in trade.
Chaco Canyon

This city at the crossroads of the silk road was laid to waste by the mongols for defying their trade. It was rebuilt using the spoils of conquest by a Mongol descendant to rule a vast empire.

Masters of farming, water management, weaving and pottery they traded for shells that they could then sell for jewelry. They survived through a communal ball-court ritual for over a thousand years of peace until they began to change their ritual architecture

This ancient building type facilitated land merchants on their routes to the west from the east, it also becomes the template for the early mosque

This vibrant capital was at the end of the silk road, and was also the massive capital of several Dynasties.

This site is a center of religion, trade and knowledge. Gold, salt and other vital good for global trade moved from here overland to the East.
F. This center place traded a ritual experience for food, birds, jewelry and other goods from hundreds of miles away.
G. Built in a defensible lagoon, this wealthy site was able to build ships quickly to dominate sea trade. It invented the modern bond market in order to borrow money to finance war, and is the origin of the first Jewish Ghetto
H. The is most powerful of the violent and independent cities in the region began as a wool and textile town before mastering the art of banking and exchange to take the products of the east and move them on to the west. Its wealth helped build what we think of as the Renaissance.
I. Hidden for centuries from outsiders due to its impressive control over water in a desert, this was a vital location for trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean
J. This Mississipean mound culture thrived along a nearby river for hundreds of years. They farmed, built ancestor burial mounds crafted fine art and kept careful watch over the sun. Many of the other sites in our region have been destroyed


1. Match the structural system to the description that best characterizes its material, form or culture
The Byzantine / Umayyad Arch
Trabeated system
Jacal Construction
Ute Lodge

More popularly known as a wickup, this was a lodge built out of found dead wood to provide shelter in the winter without harming nature

This refers to the careful interweaving of sticks and threads within a delicate mud and stone structure

This is one of the most common forms of structure, involving two vertical elements (columns) and a horizontal element (a beam), it can be found at such diverses sites as Stonehenge and the Greek Temple

This complex structure is a carefully interlaced yet standardized bracket system that transistions from the vertical element to the roof structure, it is deeply embedded in a ritual practice of craft that is maintained over centuries of practice in several building cultures

This delicate arch demonstrates alternating white and red voisuers, and sits atop delicate columns. In many sites these arches are stacked on top of each other.

This term refers to the idea of building tall using heavy arches, thick walls and massive columns. It means “after the manner of the romans.” While identified with Christian chruches, it can also be found through the Islamic empire of the middle ages.


1. Match the site or building culture to the description that best describes its relationship to water
The Chaco World
Nabatean Petra
Yuan Dadu
Angor Wat
Sinan’s Istanbul
Roman Nimes

The new ruler built a new city around a summer palace. Under the masterful designs of a hydrologist, ancient canals were widened and bridges were built. As a result the city was able to harvest trade and water from far away and increased its population rapidly. Although later conquered, this is still the capital of a vast territory.

This place in a relatively arid and forbidding landscape became a center-place of ritual power, harvesting the resources from a vast territory around it. Its dwellings for elites over generations were transformed into sacred temples. This is is one of the few sites in history designed to track and celebrate both solar and lunar events. The system influenced architecture for hundreds of miles in ever direction.

An example of imerial power through infrastructure. Despite being on a river, the engineer soldiers brough water down a constant slope through mountains and over valleys to allow this city to grow. Part of this system is now a World Heritage site. The growing citywas later endowed with all of the architecture of the Empire.

One of the most influential architect’s in history, he studied and restored the old roman baths, aqueducts and allowed the newly conquered city to grow rapidly. His tomb puts his water accomplishments higher than his temple building.

This ancient civilization venerated water, was wealthy and had a vast trading system. Every city was built to manage water and floods. Although the language remains untranslated, we know it had a rigorous proportion system for bricks, roads, and measurement.
F. This secretive trading culture was able to survive deep in the desert through a massive system of underground and cliff-side hidden aquaducts and cisterns. Merchants illustrated their wealth with elaborate rock cut tombs.
G. This imperial site recreated sacred Hindu mountains and rivers centered on canals and barays within a giant gridded landscape powered by rice. It was one of the largest urban centers of the medieval world. It will eventually become buddhist as the empire grows.
H. This recently discovered ancient site relied on irrigation from a river to grow food and cotton with which it could trade for far away goods like fish, musical instruments and narcotics. It lived in peace for over a thousand years.


1. Match the site or ritual to the description that best characterizes its meaning and form
The Mosque of Damascus
The Al-Asqa “Dome of the Rock” mosque
The Mosque of Djenne
The Mosques of Sinan
The Abassid Mosque
The Great Mosque of Cordoba
The Ger
S. Foye
The Kiva
Friday Mosque of Isfahan
The Temple of Kulkulkan
Kogi Weaving
Mahalipuram Shore Temple
S. Sauveur, Aix

This heavy yet portable structure is both a tension and compression architecture. It is gender divded and the roof rafters represent the infinite sky while the central pole represents the cosmic tree of the univrse.

The building is to be read not just as a mountain, but as mountains of different scales, getting smaller and smaller at each level until it becomes a dot.
There are three temples, Mount Meru, Shiva the Destroyer and the pool where Vishnu creates the world

Built with a new building technique from back to front, this pilgrimage church celebrates a girl who freed slaves and cured baldness. The back is more elaborate than the front. The architecture is largely unchanged because the Saint fell out of favor

This temple illustrates the impossibility of using style to date a building. Built over a roman forum, its Romanesque nave is turned into an aisle of the Gothic church, whose altars on the otherside get a Baroque remodel that was never finished.

This typology is the most austere and closely resembles the original caravanserai form of the Prohpets houes and first mosque. The Minaret is strictly for the call to prayer and in the center of the courtyard is water for ritual cleansing that is often housed in a form that resembles a Zoastrian Temple.

This temple can only be in this place. Built over a sacred water place on the cardinal directions of other sacred water places, twice a year the god manifests itself on the stairs bringing the wind and rain behind it. Its steps and platform are also the days in a year.

This temple is built over the ruins of a temple in the Byzantine manner with a richly adorned dome representing heaven. It is built over a sacred mountain and rock, and remains a contested site in history.
H. This typology re-introduced the Byzantine typology with a dome representing heaven on clearly articlulated supports. Paid for by war and often built of spolia, each of these had its non-religious fucntions moved out of the mosque to pay for its upkeep. The site, detail and number of minarets was strictly governed by decorum. He used many different structural systems to support his domes
I. This is likely the only native americas architecture you heard of. However it is a post-contact architecture deployed by the Plains People. The word itself derives from a Lakota word for “home”.
J. This mud architecture has its origins in a sacrifice and the mythic lizard’s ability to cling to walls. Its masons are holy, and although recently restored, the annual plastering is an important ritual.
K. The last surving Umayyad temple of the region. The original mosque was built over the remains of a church with spolia supporting double-stacked Byzantine-influenced arches. Over centuries it was expanded to represent the spread of Islam. This mosque is unusual in that the hypostyle hall is wider on the quibla axis and possibly was saved when it was converted into a church.
L. This is a sacred act designed to replicated the Mother’s spinning the world into existence. Despite being isolated from the world and without relying on science, their close observation and deeply thoughtful practice of seeing themselves as the stewards of the beating heart of the world, they have been warning us about our imminent destruction for decades.
M. This mosque is designed to re-orient the worshipper towards Mecca from the grid of the city. It is entered at the corners and has a vast courtyard. The courtyard has four half domes known as Iwans that are richly adorned with blue tile and scripture.
N. This is a misunderstood architecture. Although many but not all of them are round, they can be cut into the ground or built above a sacred site or water. They can be both domestic and sacred structures. You can exit through the roof representing rebirth or it can be open to the sky to track the sun, moon and stars. In some cases the number of them can represent the number of elite families.
O. The second iteration of this temple occupies a Roman sacred precinct. It encompasses an early Christian temple and is richly adorned by local craftsman. It has a basilica form with double-stacked arches and is the oldest mosque in the world.
P. This fragile circular enclosure around a sacred space is both the dwelling place and sacred space of the ednangered Yanomani



1. Match the powerful culture or religious tradition to the description of its gods, architecture or power.
Christian Architecture after Constantine
Ottoman Empire
The Maya
The Mexica
Early Buddhism
Diocletian Reforms
Aboriginal people in Australia



Financing worship of Islam through conquest

While this is the origin of the Western church, this first a way to subdivide a vast empire into more efficient taxable regions. The creator of this remade himself into a God and persecuted all who stood against the Roman religious system

Hinduism and Vishnu as King, powered by the infrastructure of rice and water. Later a vast Buddhist kingdom that perhaps collapsed as result of endless war.

Oracle bone rituals and sacrifices to divine weather, and the fortunes of crops, royalty and war.

The Cult Leader as Emperor who began the transformation the architecture of Roman Justice into a celebration of Christ as King

Sun Goddess and the cycle of rebirth

Sun, Food and Sacred Landscapes through infrastructure and conquest
H. The rainbow serpent who created the world in the Dream Time. Musicians and artists are holy
I. The Gods of Corn are born out of the back of Turtle, and the bird-sky god stands atop the world tree with roots in the primordial ocean
J. Recreating a burial mound with his life story from desire to learning to enlightenment
K. Known by their Mexica name for rubber people. This vast culture not only created corn and the three sisters agricultural system that sustained this region for thousands of years. In addition, they invented the ball ritual and a mystical jaguar cult that would be foundational to everything that comes after
L. This is a culture of warrior slaves. When they rose to power they created vast funerary monuments with tombs, mosques and schools oriented within the urban from
M. Borrowed Gods and the importance of blood sacrifice


1. Match the following sites or systems to the description that best describes its urban or landscape order
The Castrum
Wengchen Plan
The Islamic City
Kogi World Town
Pilgrimage Churches
Dadu / Beijing
Chan Chan


This military camp order was deigned to repeat a defensive strategy over any landscape. Eventually they became settlements on the expanding empire settled by veterans. They were oriented toward the cardinal directions and were eventually endowed with a temple, arena, forum and basilica. The traces of the these can be found all around the Mediteranean

This master-planned gridded city was located in the middle of a vast water system of canals and irrigation. It designed arguably the most productive floating gardens in history and derived its power from tribute and incredibly productive agricutlure. For a hundred years it was one of the largest cities on earth. It is possible that it became a template after it was conquered for the European imposition of the centered grid at home and around the world

This stone path up the passes dozens of platforms, each of which is a place of ritual worship following sacred paths inscribed in stone.

This sacred city is a cosmogram oriented to the cardinal directions and sacred peaks

This ancient template for a city was replicated for thousands of years. It had 3 gates facing the cardinal directions enclosed in a massive rectangular wall.

This is a Mongolian adaptation of an ancient Shandi and Zhou imperial system. With ordered gates oriented towards the cardinal directions, and a palace at the. This massive capital city embeds the taoist movement of water and nature through the confucian order of heirarchical spaces centered on the body of the emperor. The Dynasty afterwards keeps the same oder yet relocates the city to the south so that the palace is now at the northern end.

Inhabited solely by relatives of the ruler and priests, its grid divides the city into four quarters as a representation of its empire where the roads reach out in straight lines to each of its territories. It has a massive open space in the middle and its principle spaces, architectures and waterways articulate the sacred animal form of the panther.

This city begins as the capital of the Fatimid Empire, before becoming the Mamluk capital. While it has the third largest mosque in Africa, it is home to many funerary monuments that orient the urban spaces in the old city.
I. These cities vary greatly, depending on what was there first. However, one of the defining characteristics is oreinting neghborhoods around sacred temples and markets. Formerly gridded streets begin to disappear as the city is re-oreinted towards protecting the privacy of extended families. Many streets have few windows or doors (oustide the markets) while the interior spaces are open and spacious.
J. The idea of moving from sacred space to sacred space along trade routes, creates its own urban systems. Small towns and temples appear one days walk from each other as religious travelers move from sacred site to sacred site, reinforcing the economic importance of relics and trade.
K. Also know as sun sun, this trading city had kings that when they died kept their land. New kings had to constantly conquer new territory.
L. Known by its Mexica name, this is one of the largest planned cities in the Americas. Its ritual temples were built over sacrifices and sacred caves. Originally brightly painted and oriented towards a sacred mountian.

1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Hinduism?
A. The worship of one god.
B. The inlfuence of Jainism, Buddhism, Vedism, Zoarastrianism, Vedism
C. The idea of a sacred river, that is manifest as a god
D. The importance of a sacred mountain as representative of the infinite universe.








1. Match the culture to the infrastructure or system that they are best known for
Dynastic China


Possibly the largest canal system for farming in an arid landscape in the Americas

40000 km of roads in four terrains at great height

The Grand Canal, Great Walls and massive cities

Aqueducts and architectural systems that can be repeated over a large territory

Aqueducts and hidden cisterns in the desert

Ritual spirit roads carved or marked straight for hundreds of miles

Yam, a postal service that could move freely over thousands of miles

Geoglyphs marking a sacred landscape


1. True or False: Plains Native people of North America always had horses (Extra Credit).
1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the “Gothic”
A. These soaring structures are meant to be experienced from the outside as objects and monuments framed in the open space in the city.
B. The structure is the scripture, religion is expressed through visual sculptural narratives.
C. The use of light is meant to represent Heaven given the darkness and short life of the war-weary times.
D. It could take a few decades to build or hundreds. Often the building was delayed by war, therefore the next stage was built in a more contemporary style. Hardly any are actually finished and many have been continually alteredNimes

True or False: Agriculture and urbanization is the longest human tradition (Extra Credit)

1. Match the site to the description that best described how it embodies the cosmology or religion
Angor Wat
The Pantheon
Hagia Sophia
Florence Cathedral
S. Apollinaire, Ravenna
The Churches of Rome
St. George, Lalibella
Mayan Ballcourt
Roman Temple
Greek Temple
Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque
The Abao
1568-1574 Sultan Selimeye Mosque


This columned sacred space was oreinted along cardinal directions and inspired by the Etruscan practice of using the front porch as a stage for sacrifice and augury. These were stamped all over the empire.

This columned sacred space was oriented towards the sunrise on the God’s birthday. Rituals were performed in front of the temple, that was usually brightly painted. Each one was custom.

Built by three successive dynasties, this sacred site combines the narrative of ruler conquest with the creation narrative of the god Vishnu. It is surrounded by a massive barray representing the cosmic ocean. As you move towards the center the narrative and power get more and more intense. It was one of the largest cities in the world and ruled over an enormous engineered landscape

A powerful banking family made rich by trade from east to west built the largest church in Christendom at the time to reinforce their city as a center of power. Its dome was the width of the Pantheon, however could not be built for a long time. The Dome is not a dome and is a complex structure of Gothic ribs reinforced by a series of stone, iron and wooden chains and thin heringbone stacked bricks.

Its form is the back of a turtle in a primordial sea on whose back an all important God is born, based on a series of mythical stories about the origin of corn and the sun. The ritual game is a sacred event, where the captain has to be sacrificed to please the Gods.

This rock carved church has little resemblence to the roman inspired early christian churches. It began as an artesianal well and the church was carved down to the level of the water

This three tiered sacred Mountain, is a complete timeline of the history of its people and its most important King going back in time and forward into the far future. It was built to commemorate the end of war and to mark the sacred spring.The Priests would read this out to the people from the top.
H. This early church was built by the Goth Aryan Christian king of Italy using a number of early depictions of Chrerst, both with and without a beard, , where God occupies the seat of judgement and Christ is a figure enthroned. The scripture is depicted in pictures and allegories, not text. It was subsequently modified by Justinian and others. The city was once the center of an enlightened Gothic Empire.
I. This sacred mound is derived from a pile of stones over the dead, and also a representation of a sacred mountian and represents four secred elements. Adapted to Buddhism over time, it is still a place where one must dismount and add a rock.
J. The entire plateau is organized into a system of concentric circles with, at its center, Mount Meru. The bottom circle is strictly an account of experiences, the middle circle is all that man is taught, the highest circle is the sphere of revelation. This buddhist temple is one of the world’s largest mandelas, however it has been restored recently making its interpretation of the imagery difficult
K. This Church was built at the new center of an Empire. It was designed to represent the power of God with its massive dome that represented heaven appearing to float on a ring of light unsupported from below. Without changing its essential form, it became a Mosque when the city changed Empires. It illustrates the convergence of Roman engineering with Mesopotamian dome structures.
L. This unique structure was the centerpiece of a new city built adjacent to an ancient city. Unlike other temples it was oriented north so that the occulus in the dome could harness the movement of the sun. Its materials were harnessed from the entire Empire while its influences are largely from the East. Its vast coffered concrete dome inspired thousands of buildings for the next two millenium
M. These many sites were outside the old wall as you could not bury a body inside the Roma sacred border. These tombs for martyrs became the sites of pilgrimage churches over time, including the original S. Peters.
N. First grand building to be seen by Western travelers to Istanbul. Financed by plunder from the military campaign of Cyprus, it is a vertical triumph dedicated to the Glory of God and and its architect who finally built the largest dome



1. Match the following spaces or artifacts or types with the description.
Mount Meru
Garb Griha
Quibla Wall
The Nomad
Geoglyphs and Geograms


This sacred niche held the sacred text and was almost always oreinted towards Mecca. In some Islamic cultures it is also a representation of heaven with a garden on the other side

This is the idea of a womb chamber where the god can be born into the world. It occupies an empty space at the heart of a temple.

This is the representation of the infinite universe. It is manifest as actual mountains and is where the gods live.

These are spiral shaped wells for walking and driving wind into the underground reservoir

This figure represented both the idea of the grotesque as a critique of power as well as the likely future for sinners.
F. This hole on the bottom of the Kiva represents the emergence from the earth Mothers womb
G. This human infrastructure is one of the keys to the empire’s power. He is sacred messenger who was able to run across roads carved into the mountains. Architectures were placed along his route in order to get him to his location quickly
H. This religious item and form can be traced back to the Harrapan culture. In its current use it represents a male sex aspect in a women’s aspect and is often at the center of a temple attended by preists ofr visible through a small window
I. These massive landscape markers are oriented towards celestial systems on the ground with rocks or moving rocks away from the surface
J. This temple form represents the Mount Meru cosmology and is often depicted as infinite levels with the abodes fo the gods or as vibrating with energy
K. This cultural type is found all over the world, and although they appear to be only mobile and pastoral they are the lynchpins on the global economy and have had an outsized influence on the world.
L. This system of knots was a form of communication and counting for a short-lived but powerful empire. Its use can be traced back to the earliest sites of this part of the world



1. True or False (Extra Credit): The Tomato has always been an important part of Italian Cuisine
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