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ARBC2031 GATECH Arabs And Arabia Before Islam Religion History Help

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9/20/2018 School of Modern Languages Georgia Institute of Technology ARBC 2031 Arts Sciences and Technology through History Fall 2018 Tuesday and Thursday 3:00-4:15 Swann Building 206 Highlights • Arabs and Arabia before Islam • The origin and character of Arabian religion • The Origins of the Idols • Jahiliyya as Arabic Signifier for Pre‐Islamic Arabia • Prophet Muhammad (Revise and Re‐enforce) • Successors (Briefly) • Legacy (Qur’an and Hadith) Arabs and Arabia Before Islam The Origin and Character of Arabian Religions • Social identity ( Kinship ( in Arabic “ ‘asabiya”) • Landscape/Demography Jews Christians (Chalcedonians, Monophysites, Nestorian) Zoroastrians Hunafa’ Polytheists (dominant religion)/ • (Deseret(Bedouin ) • Urban (Agrarian)) • Was the “Bedouin” and the “Agrarian” completely isolated? • Scarce Sources • Islamic Sources such as biography of the Prophet (sira) • Roman Sources 9/20/2018 The Origins of the Idols Jahiliyya • Archeological evidence • General explanation of Jahiliyya often understands the term in contrast to ‘Islam.‘ Jahiliyya is from the root (jhl) and the root means in English “ignorance.” • This conception is WRONG • statues of the Graeco‐Egyptian god Harpocrates • Roman sources • Syrian Bishop Theodoret of Cyrrhus ( 393 – 458/466 C.E.) • Understanding Jahiliyya is very crucial to understanding how early Muslims perceived pre‐Islamic polytheist/ “pagan” times. Jahiliyya as fanaticism Philological Evidence from pre‐Islamic poetry shows that Muhammad probably used the word in the way it was used in pre‐Islamic poetry which refers to jahl (impulsive and fanatic)as an antonym to hilm (patience and deliberation) The Prophet Muhammad (570‐632) • Family • Early Childhood • Revelation Period 610‐632 9/20/2018 Challenges after Prophecy (610) What are the major challenges facing Muhammad after the prophecy? • Rejection from tribe and clan members • Facing Persecution • Emigration of Followers to Abyssinia (615?) • Boycott of the Quraysh tribe against Muhammad’s clan (Banu Hashim) (616‐619 ) • Building alliances outside Mecca (620‐622) • Hijra: Muhammad’s emigration in 622 Challenges after Hijra (622) What are the challenges facing Muhammad after the hijra? • Water and Securing Trade Routes: 624 Battle of Badr • Competition over resources with residents of Medina • “Pact” of Median: Not to extend any support to tribes of Mecca • Jewish‐Muslim Conflict • 625 Battle of Uhud: defeat of Muhammad and his followers • Expulsion of some Jews from Medina • 627 Battel of the Trench (Muslims vs Jewish and Meccan Tribes) 9/20/2018 Peace : Treaty of Hudaybiya What is the treaty of the Hudaybiya (623)? • Between Muhammad and Mecca • It opened access to the shrine of Mecca • Allowed Muslims to expand their network of alliances • Protecting Alliances: 629 (Battle of Mu’ta) Unsuccessful expedition towards the Byzantine territory • 630 Violation of the Treaty and Peaceful Conquest of Mecca • Chiefs of Mecca accept Islam Triumph of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula • Battel of Hunayn and siege of al‐Taif (630) (defending Mecca against other Arab tribes like Thaqif and Hawazin) • Campaign against Tabuk (Ghassanis, vessals of Byzantium) 632 Farwell pilgrimage/last sermon and death of Prophet Muhammad 9/20/2018 Muhammad Successors The Qur’an • 632‐634 Abu Bakr • 634‐644 The Caliph ‘Umar Ibn al‐Khatta • 644‐656 Caliphate of ‘Uthman • ‘Uthman’s Qur’an • Bibliotheca de France • Other fragments in Russia, Rome Vatican, London • A copy of a Qur’an is kept in al‐Hussien mosque in Cairo. 80 KG Pages 187 paper • Other Copies of ‘Uthman’s Quran in Istanbul
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