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answered : Present an implicit or explicit argument. It’s up to you whether this argument is presented in the..

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Present an implicit or explicit argument. It’s up to you whether this argument is presented in the..

Present an implicit or explicit argument. It’s up to you whether this argument is presented in the traditional location at the end of the first paragraph (or at least early on in the paper) or if you try out presenting it in the conclusion (which is the strategy that several of the author’s we’ve been reading have used).

Use various rhetorical techniques that we’ve studied this semester (description, compare/ contrast, definition, cause/effect, emotional and logical appeals, appeals that establish your credibility, and so on).

Incorporate relevant information from 2 sources that you find on your own. ONE of these must be an academic journal article.

Introduce all sources clearly, and use quoted or paraphrased evidence throughout the paper.

Structure the essay as a whole, and the paragraphs that make it up, in a clear and disciplined manner. Remember, your purpose is to communicate clearly with someone who has little knowledge of the topic or your sources.

Include in-text citations and a Works Cited page formatted according to MLA requirements.

Fighting food deserts takes more than fresh produce |

6/2/14 10:09 AM

Fighting food deserts takes more than fresh produce

Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

by David Weinberg (/people/david-weinberg) Thursday, March 27, 2014 – 14:48

Food deserts are communities where residents with little or no access to healthy foods, often because there is no full-service supermarket. Food deserts are often found in low-income neighborhoods, and many cities in the U.S. have made efforts to bring fresh produce to these communities, which often have much higher rates of obesity, diabetes and other health problems. In California, public health officials are trying a new approach. On a sunny morning in Boyle Heights, a predominantly Latino neighborhood in East Los Angeles, the sidewalk in front of the Euclid Market was packed with TV news cameras and city officials. The sign on/-+ the store read “Todo Lo Que Necesita,” everything you need. Dr. Eric Walsh, the director of the Health Department in nearby Pasadena, stepped up to a podium *-and adjusted the microphone. Next to him was a table covered with brightly colored packages of tobacco products and sweetened alcohol drinks. “Well, I want to start by saying we ought to take pause and ask a very difficult and hard question,” Walsh began. “Who do these products target? Why are they in the neighborhoods that they’re in? In fact, what we face today is a question about the new civil rights in America. That there are corporations and practices out there that are targeting the poorest, most vulnerable, least resourced people in our community. The blackest the brownest. So we have a responsibility in public heath to step up and address this.” Page 1 of 5

Fighting food deserts takes more than fresh produce |


6/2/14 10:09 AM

The purpose of the news conference is to announce the results from a statewide survey, the first of its kind. Researchers visited more than 7,000 grocery stores in California, everything from small corner stores to big-box stores. The survey looked at how tobacco, alcohol and junk food are marketed. The survey found that 71 percent of the stores carried alcohol, while 37 percent sold milk, and more than half did not carry fresh produce. The survey also found that unhealthy products were more prevalent and more heavily marketed in poor neighborhoods. The news conference was held at the Euclid Market because it’s participating in a Market Makeover project sponsored by UCLA and the University of Southern California. Store owners get a free remodel of their store if they agree to offer healthy products and take down ads for junk food, alcohol and tobacco. Before the makeover, the first thing you saw when you walked into Euclid was a wall of potato chips. Now it’s a produce case. And the windows of the store are no longer covered with ads. Maria Avila owns the Euclid Market. She says the store is beautiful now. Removing the ads from the windows brought more natural light in, and more life. Avila’s seen a slight uptick in sales. But not everyone is convinced that these makeovers are good for business. The owner of a corner store a few blocks away had planned on participating in the makeover project, but said he changed his mind. He makes most of his money selling beer and junk food and he wasn’t convinced that people would buy produce even if he offered it. And the owner is right. Stocking stores with produce is only part of the solution. People have to be motivated to buy it. “Most of the people we are working with are either food stamp recipients or food stamp eligible,” said Mary Otetra Garcia, who runs a nutrition and physical activity program in Pasadena. ” People that are under the poverty level of 185 percent.” Garcia teaches classes on health and nutrition in a working class neighborhood with few places to buy healthy food. “I always tell people, whatever your cultural food is it’s okay to have that, because the more American diet they adopt or their children adopt, the unhealthier they get,” she said. “Studies have shown that people who come from other countries are healthier than the people that are here.” Maria Vargas participated in the program. She says it’s made a big difference in her families’ health. She buys potato chips and soda only for special occasions now, and doesn’t take the family to McDonald’s any more. Now *-+she cooks most of her meals at home with her three children. “They need to participate,” Vargas said. “That’s the way they learn how we can cook different and healthy foods.”

Page 2 of 5

Fighting food deserts takes more than fresh produce |

6/2/14 10:09 AM

Asked what she made for dinner the night before, she replied, “Well, you know when you do the Mexican rice, we do it steamed and I put tomato.” Joseph Garcia also took the class and has worked hard at changing his families’ eating habit, especially his eldest sons. “I think with all of us at home, we weren’t crazy about the changes,” Garcia said. “And I think a lot of of the family members don’t want to hear it. That you shouldn’t drink a lot of soda and eat a lot of fried things.” He said he worries a little bit about what his son eats when he’s not at home. “I know that sometimes he will eat a hamburger around there. So I will find in the car a bag from Taco Bell or something. But he ends up doing alright for the most part.” Nearly all the restaurants in this part of Pasadena are fast food, mostly fried chicken and burger joints, a few small Mexican places. But fresh fruit was available from Alejandro Beltran, who sells mango, pineapple, cucumber and coconut, sliced and sprinkled with lime and chile, from a cart. He said business is pretty good. “I sell to all social classes, different races, Latinos, Asians, Americans,” he said. Bletran pulled a chunk of pineapple from his cart and sliced it in half with his knife. Everyone eats fruit, he said. Featured in: Marketplace for Thursday, March 27, 2014 (/shows/marketplace/marketplace-thursdaymarch-27-2014)

About the author
David Weinberg is a general assignment reporter at Marketplace.
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Comments for this thread are closed. 6 Comments

Alix April 30, 2014

Fresh vegetables and food items are difficult to search when you visit any grocery store because only freshness is not important, organic food is also necessary. I brought pizza Page 3 of 5

Fighting food deserts takes more than fresh produce |

6/2/14 10:09 AM

veges from Euclid Market and quality was good. Regards, Alix Form (…

MichaelMarketplace March 30, 2014

I didn’t avoid the issue of personal responsibility: it just wasn’t the subject of my post. My post was rather intended to give a counterweight to the apparent dismissal of the role of lack of knowledge/education and socioeconomic status could play in fueling obesity, especially in children. Certainly, adults ultimately have to take individual action to deal with their obesity — but knowledge, income, and employment conditions can all be limiting factors to success in executing individual action. …

Miami-Sid March 28, 2014

@ MichaelMarketplace Yours is a well argued position and one I notice avoided the issue of personal responsibility. As I stated there are all sort of reasons for bad eating habits but personal responsibility should be somewhere near the top of the list. I think the most likely truth of the matter is expressed well by the line in the story that stated: “Garcia said. “And I think a lot of of the family members don’t want to hear it. That you shouldn’t drink a lot of soda and eat a lot of fried things.”” …

MichaelMarketplace March 28, 2014

@ Miami-Sid: True, the poor aren’t stupid, but lack of education and stupidity aren’t the same thing. Many children today can’t identify or name many common fruits and vegetables, let alone know what to do to make meals or snacks out of them, and we know that the children of poor families learn many multiples fewer words than children middle and high-income parents; fewer and fewer people are learning how to cook from their parents, and busy parents working multiple jobs with odd or unpredictable schedules (who are disproportionately poor) don’t want to stock a fridge full of food that they don’t have time to prepare and that their kids don’t know what to do with, so they don’t buy it just to watch it rot. Kids wind up growing up eating out of boxes and bags, and then carrying those habits into adulthood and passing them on to their kids. There are many children (again, especially of low-income, low-education background) who don’t understand the difference between fruit juice and fruit-flavored sugary beverages. These are real skills requiring real education (including education at the apron springs of a parent who knows how to cook and has the time to do it), and poorer families are less likely to pick those up in the ‘traditional’ way….

Page 4 of 5

Fighting food deserts takes more than fresh produce |

6/2/14 10:09 AM

Miami-Sid March 28, 2014

This is where folks that consider themselves politically conservatives may have a point: personal responsibility. While there are a lot of valid explanations why the poor tend eat unhealthy foods one is rarely mentioned: taking personal responsibility for at least trying. This issue applies also to voting. Lack of education, the perennial excuse, is a bit old; the poor are not stupid. Bad decision making may be closer to the truth. If there was a demand there would most certainly be a supply. …

polistra March 27, 2014

Yup, it’s usually a question of demand, not supply.Good example here in Spokane. I shop at two Safeways. One is near my house in a middle-middle 1950s suburban area. The other is closer to downtown in a definitely lower-class area. Both stores have the same arrangement and the same space given to produce. But the produce in the somewhat richer store is tremendously better.I complimented the produce manager in the richer store on his fresh vegs and good selection, and he explained: “Well, we have fresher stock here because the customers buy everything fast. It doesn’t get a chance to go stale.”…

Page 5 of 5

This Is Why Poor People’s Bad Decisions Make Perfect Sense | Linda Tirado

6/16/14 10:31


June 17, 2014

This Is Why Poor People’s Bad Decisions Make Perfect Sense
Posted: 11/22/2013 5:18 pm Recommend 235,596 people recommend this. Be the first of your friends.

Linda Tirado

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Get Politics Newsletters: Enter email Subscribe 3,600 Email 8022 Comment Want More? Download Our New Weekly Magazine: Huffington.

There’s no way to structure this coherently. They are random observations that might help explain the mental processes. But often, I think that we look at the academic problems of poverty and have no idea of the why. We know the what and the how, and we can see systemic problems, but it’s rare to have a poor person actually explain it on their own behalf. So this is me doing that, sort of.

Rest is a luxury for the rich. I get up at 6AM, go to school (I have a full course load, but I only have to go to two in-person classes) then work, then I get the kids, then I pick up my husband, then I have half an hour to change and go to Job 2. I get home from that at around 12:30AM, then I have the rest of my classes and work to tend to. I’m in bed by 3. This isn’t every day, I have two days off a week from each of my obligations. I use that time to clean the house and soothe Mr. Martini and see the kids for longer than an hour and catch up on schoolwork. Those nights I’m in bed by midnight, but if I go to bed too early I won’t be able to stay up the other nights because I’ll fuck my pattern up, and I drive an hour home from Job 2 so I can’t afford to be sleepy. I never get a day off from work unless I am fairly sick. It doesn’t leave you much room to think about what you are doing, only to attend to the next thing and the next. Planning isn’t in the mix. When I got pregnant the first time, I was living in a weekly motel. I had a minifridge with no freezer and a microwave. I was on WIC. I ate peanut butter from the jar and frozen burritos because they were 12/$2. Had I had a stove, I couldn’t have made beef burritos that cheaply. And I needed the meat, I was pregnant. I might not have had any prenatal care, but I am intelligent enough to eat protein and iron whilst knocked up. I know how to cook. I had to take Home Ec to graduate high school. Most people on my level didn’t. Broccoli is intimidating. You have to have a working stove, and pots, and spices, and you’ll have to do the dishes no matter how tired you are or they’ll attract bugs. It is a huge new skill for a lot of people. That’s not great, but it’s true. And if you fuck it up, you could make your family sick. We have learned not to try too hard to be middle-class. It never works out well and always makes you feel worse for having tried and failed yet again. Better not to try. It makes more sense to get food that you know will be palatable and cheap and that keeps well. Junk food is a pleasure that we are allowed to have; why would we give that up? We have very few

Page 1 of 11

This Is Why Poor People’s Bad Decisions Make Perfect Sense | Linda Tirado

6/16/14 10:31 PM

of them. The closest Planned Parenthood to me is three hours. That’s a lot of money in gas. Lots of women can’t afford that, and even if you live near one you probably don’t want to be seen coming in and out in a lot of areas. We’re aware that we are not “having kids,” we’re “breeding.” We have kids for much the same reasons that I imagine rich people do. Urge to propagate and all. Nobody likes poor people procreating, but they judge abortion even harder. Convenience food is just that. And we are not allowed many conveniences. Especially since the Patriot Act passed, it’s hard to get a bank account. But without one, you spend a lot of time figuring out where to cash a check and get money orders to pay bills. Most motels now have a no-credit-card-no-room policy. I wandered around SF for five hours in the rain once with nearly a thousand dollars on me and could not rent a room even if I gave them a $500 cash deposit and surrendered my cell phone to the desk to hold as surety. Nobody gives enough thought to depression. You have to understand that we know that we will never not feel tired. We will never feel hopeful. We will never get a vacation. Ever. We know that the very act of being poor guarantees that we will never not be poor. It doesn’t give us much reason to improve ourselves. We don’t apply for jobs because we know we can’t afford to look nice enough to hold them. I would make a super legal secretary, but I’ve been turned down more than once because I “don’t fit the image of the firm,” which is a nice way of saying “gtfo, pov.” I am good enough to cook the food, hidden away in the kitchen, but my boss won’t make me a server because I don’t “fit the corporate image.” I am not beautiful. I have missing teeth and skin that looks like it will when you live on B12 and coffee and nicotine and no sleep. Beauty is a thing you get when you can afford it, and that’s how you get the job that you need in order to be beautiful. There isn’t much point trying. Cooking attracts roaches. Nobody realizes that. I’ve spent a lot of hours impaling roach bodies and leaving them out on toothpick pikes to discourage others from entering. It doesn’t work, but is amusing. “Free” only exists for rich people. It’s great that there’s a bowl of condoms at my school, but most poor people will never set foot on a college campus. We don’t belong there. There’s a clinic? Great! There’s still a copay. We’re not going. Besides, all they’ll tell you at the clinic is that you need to see a specialist, which seriously? Might as well be located on Mars for how accessible it is. “Low-cost” and “sliding scale” sounds like “money you have to spend” to me, and they can’t actually help you anyway. I smoke. It’s expensive. It’s also the best option. You see, I am always, always exhausted. It’s a stimulant. When I am too tired to walk one more step, I can smoke and go for another hour. When I am enraged and beaten down and incapable of accomplishing one more thing, I can smoke and I feel a little better, just for a minute. It is the only relaxation I am allowed. It is not a good decision, but it is the only one that I have access to. It is the only thing I have found that keeps me from collapsing or exploding. I make a lot of poor financial decisions. None of them matter, in the long term. I will never not be poor, so what does it matter if I don’t pay a thing and a half this week instead of just one thing? It’s not like the sacrifice will result in improved circumstances; the thing holding me back isn’t that I blow five bucks at Wendy’s. It’s that now that I have proven that I am a Poor Person that is all that I am or ever will be. It is not worth it to me to live a bleak life devoid of small pleasures so that one day I can make a single large purchase. I will never have large pleasures to hold on to. There’s a certain pull to live what bits of life you can while there’s money in your pocket, because no matter how responsible you are you will be broke in three days anyway. When you never have enough money it ceases to have meaning. I imagine having a lot of it is the same thing. Poverty is bleak and cuts off your long-term brain. It’s why you see people with four different babydaddies instead of one. You grab a bit of connection wherever you can to survive. You have no idea how strong the pull to feel worthwhile is. It’s more basic than food. You go to these people who make you feel lovely for an hour that one time, and that’s all you get. You’re probably not compatible with them for anything long-term, but right this minute they can make you feel powerful and valuable. It does not matter what will happen in a month. Whatever happens in a month is probably going to be just about as indifferent as whatever happened today or last week. None of it matters. We don’t plan long-term because if we do we’ll just get our hearts broken. It’s best not to hope. You just take what you can get as you spot it. I am not asking for sympathy. I am just trying to explain, on a human level, how it is that people make what look from the outside like awful decisions. This is what our lives are like, and here are our defense mechanisms, and here is why we think differently. It’s certainly self-defeating, but it’s safer. That’s all. I hope it helps make sense of it. Additions have been made to the update below to reflect the responses received. UPDATE: The response to this piece is overwhelming. I have had a lot of people ask to use my work. Please do. Share it with the world if you found value in it. Please link back if you can. If you are teaching, I am happy to discuss this with or clarify for you, and you can freely use this piece in your classes. Please do let me know where you teach. You can reach me on Twitter, @killermartinis. I set up an email at killermartinisbook@ gmail as well. This piece has gone fully viral. People have been asking me to write, and how they can help. After enough people tried to send me paypal money, I set up a gofundme. Find it here. It promptly went insane. I have raised my typical yearly income as of this update. I have no idea what to say except thank you. I am going to speak with some money people who will make sure that I can’t fuck this up, and I will use it to do good things with. Page 2 of 11

This Is Why Poor People’s Bad Decisions Make Perfect Sense | Linda Tirado

6/16/14 10:31 PM

I’ve also set up a blog, which I hope you will find here. Understand that I wrote this as an example of the thought process that we struggle with. Most of us are clinically depressed, and we do not get therapy and medication and support. We get told to get over it. And we find ways to cope. I am not saying that people live without hope entirely; that is not human nature. But these are the thoughts that are never too far away, that creep up on us every chance they get, that prey on our better judgement when we are tired and stressed and weakened. We maintain a constant vigil against these thoughts, because we are afraid that if we speak them aloud or even articulate them in our heads they will become unmanageably real. Thank you for reading. I am glad people find value in it. Because I am getting tired of people not reading this and then commenting anyway, I am making a few things clear: not all of this piece is about me. That is why I said that they were observations. And this piece is not all of me: that is why I said that they were random observations rather than complete ones. If you really have to urge me to abort or keep my knees closed or wonder whether I can fax you my citizenship documents or if I really in fact have been poor because I know multisyllabic words, I would like to ask that you read the comments and see whether anyone has made your point in the particular fashion you intend to. It is not that I mind trolls so much, it’s that they’re getting repetitive and if you have to say nothing I hope you can at least do it in an entertaining fashion. If, however, you simply are curious about something and actually want to have a conversation, I do not mind repeating myself because those conversations are valuable and not actually repetitive. They tend to be very specific to the asker, and I am happy to shed any light I can. I do not mind honest questions. They are why I wrote this piece. Thank you all, so much. I don’t know what life will look like next week, and for once that’s a good thing. And I have you to thank. This post first appeared on This story appears in Issue 78 of our weekly iPad magazine, Huffington, available Friday, Dec. 6in the iTunes App store. Follow Linda Tirado on Twitter: 3,343 people are discussing this article with 7,985 comments

Comments are closed on this entry.



Antony C. (outlandish)
POLITICAL PUNDIT · 12,412 Fans · In something we trust


For decades right wing populist media has made the poor out to be poor by choice and never delved into the root cause of poverty. Poverty begets poverty and vilification of the poor begets a loss of self esteem and motivation, while pathways out of poverty have been closed off at a very fast pace.

The minimum wage has halved in value over the past 3 decades, while corporations just go on profiting year after year and the wealth divide is the greatest in the US over any other nation. Nearly half the population of the US lives below the poverty line while a small fraction of the population has seen their wealth grow by 500% in real terms over the past 3 decades.

Poverty is depressing and not the luxury lifestyle depicted on right wing media, whereby they portray the victims of unchecked and Page 3 of 11




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