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AHS 104 Atmospheric Science and Body Heat Loss Questions

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Forecast high Forecast Low Actual high Actual Low Error in high Error in low 1/25/2022 -19 -30 -22 -27 -3 3 1/27/2022 -3 -27 -13 -26 -10 1 2/1/2022 2/3/2022 2/10/2022 17 0 35 -9 -10 5 15 2 35 -3 -19 19 -2 2 0 6 9 14 Date Cloud forecast Clear Partly cloudy and frigid Cloudy Partly cloudy Cloudy Forecast precipitation Actual precipitation none 0 none 0 none none none 2% 0 96% Welcome to AHS 104 Day 14: 11 February 2022 ◼ ◼ Chapter 4: Humidity Assignments: ◆ Today’s Lecture Quiz due Sunday, 13 February at 11:59 PM. Note you may make two attempts (highest score is kept). ◆ Lab 5 due Wednesday, 16 February ◆ Read Chapter 4 in textbook 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 1 Don’t neglect your weather notebook ◼ It’s easy points and worth 20% of your grade! 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 2 Chapter 4: Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds ◼ Water is important!! ◆ Water vapor is a major greenhouse gas. ◆ Water changes phase in the atmosphere!! ⧫ Makes clouds, rain, snow, etc. possible 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 3 Calvin is right! 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 4 What are the three phases of matter? Phase Gas Liquid Solid 02/11/2022 Type of water in atmosphere Invisible water vapor Cloud droplets and raindrops Ice crystals, snow, hail, sleet, etc. AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 5 Review: phase changes between all forms take place in the atmosphere ◼ When phase changes occur, latent heat is absorbed or released. ◆ Latent = hidden 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 6 Air gets cooled Air gets warmed 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 7 Examples of phase changes Condensation: ◆ Water releases heat ◼ Evaporation: ◆ Water absorbs heat ◼ warms the air cools the air (or your body, in the case of sweating) ◼ Freezing: water releases heat 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 8 Practice Questions ◼ 1. If water evaporates into the air from the Gulf of Mexico, what does this do to the temperature of the surface water in the Gulf? ◆ (warm it, cool it, not change it) ◼ 2. On a clear, calm cold morning, frost forms on the outside of your windshield. At the moment the frost forms, what happens to the surface of windshield and air just above it? ◆ (it warms, it cools, temperature doesn’t change) 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 9 Answers ◼ 1. If water evaporates into the air from the Gulf of Mexico, what does this do to the temperature of the surface water in the Gulf? ◆ (warm it, cool it, not change it) ◼ 2. On a clear, calm cold morning, frost forms on the outside of your windshield. At the moment the frost forms, what happens to the surface of the windshield and air just above it? ◆ (it warms, it cools, temperature doesn’t change) 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 10 What is saturation? ◼ ◼ Saturation: condition in which the amount of water vapor in the air is the maximum possible at that temperature. How can we tell? ◆ We see a cloud ◆ We see dew or frost 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 11 Dew point temperature Dew point temperature is the temperature at which air would saturate if cooled sufficiently, forming dew It is a measure of water vapor content The higher the dew point, the more water vapor there is (higher content). The air feels humid! 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 12 Finding the dew point The dew point can be calculated using the measurements from a sling psychrometer Another way: electronic humidity sensor Measure electrical changes as sensor absorbs water vapor from the air. 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 13 Relative Humidity We hear about this on TV weather reports ◆ RH = (water vapor content / water vapor capacity) x 100% ◆ Capacity is the content when the air is saturated (i.e. the maximum content possible) ◆ Example: RH = 50% means the air contains 50% of the moisture needed to saturate the air. ◆ ◆ Warmer air has a higher capacity 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 14 day day night night Temperature (red) changes a lot from night to day Dew point (blue) changes little Relative humidity (green) high overnight, low during the day Implication: RH changes drastically due to temperature change; dew point doesn’t. 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 15 Why does the air seem so dry indoors in winter? ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Cold air with low dew point (and low water vapor content) enters the house, where it is heated by the furnace. Heating the air increases its capacity. Since RH = (content/capacity) x 100 the low content and high capacity makes RH really small! The low RH evaporates water readily, drying out your lips, skin, and nasal passages. 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 16 Practice Questions ◼ 1. If we take air that has a temperature of 50ºF and a dew ◼ point temperature of 35ºF and cool the air by 10ºF to 40ºF: ◆ Will the dew point temperature increase, decrease or stay the same? ◆ What will you observe if the air cools to 35ºF? 2. Assume that early one morning, the temperature was 51oF with dew forming on the grass, while the next morning the temperature was 63oF with a dew point of 57oF. ◆ Which day had the most water vapor in the air, the first morning or the second morning? 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 17 Answers ◼ ◼ 1. If we take air that has a temperature of 50ºF and a dew point temperature of 35ºF and cool the air by 10ºF to 40ºF: ◆ Will the dew point temperature increase, decrease or stay the same? stay the same ◆ What will you observe if the air cools to 35ºF? dew 2. Assume that early one morning, the temperature was 51oF with dew forming on the grass, while the next morning the temperature was 63oF with a dew point of 57oF. ◆ Which day had the most water vapor in the air, the first morning or the second morning? second morning: dew point was higher 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 18 3. On a humid summer day you take a glass filled with ice and your favorite beverage. A film of water forms on the outside of the glass. What happened? a. b. c. The air outside the glass was cooled to its dew point and its water vapor condensed. Some of the drink has been evaporated, forming water vapor on the glass. The latent heat of melting the ice has been conducted to the outside of the glass. 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 19 Answer 3. On a humid summer day you take a glass filled with ice and your favorite beverage. A film of water forms on the outside of the glass. What happened? a. b. c. The air outside the glass was cooled to its dew point and its water vapor condensed. Some of the drink has been evaporated, forming water vapor on the glass. The latent heat of melting the ice has been conducted to the outside of the glass. 02/11/2022 AHS 104 Day 14 Spring 2022 20 Question 1 (1 point) The largest annual range of temperatures is found: in polar latitudes over land in polar latitudes over water at the equator in middle latitudes near oceans Question 2 (1 point) A village on the side of a mountain will generally have cooler temperatures than a city on the plains just below. True False Question 3 (1 point) The average daily temperature is is now running a ___ of energy. at this time of year since the energy budget rising, surplus falling, deficit falling, surplus rising, deficit Question 4 (1 point) The wind chill temperature: determines how low the air temperature will be on any given day indicates the temperature at which water freezes on skin relates body heat loss with winds to an equivalent temperature with calm winds Question 5 (1 point) A tree exposed to the wind will cool down to the wind chill temperature. True False Question 6 (1 point) Of the following substances, the one with the highest value of specific heat: sand dirt rock water
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